To Whom Was This Sacrifice Useful? Online Exhibit

"[O]n the 21st of April everything was lost, men, arms, and reputation."
 
small swirl divider
     
The cry Remember the Alamo! that the enemy shouted as he dealt his blows served to increase his fury during that terrible moment, to make the conflict more bitter for our men, and to avenge twice over their comrades who had fallen at the place of that name.

--José Enrique de la Peña Narrative

 

Texas Official!! Broadside

    bulletRepublic of Texas Army, Texas Official!!, New Orleans, 1836. Broadside, CN 01841, Broadside Collection.

This broadside was the first to announce the Texan victory at San Jacinto. It includes the text of Santa Anna's three orders to his forces from San Jacinto, dated April 22, 1836, in which he announces his surrender and instructs them to cease hostilities.

(Versión en Español)

     
     
[Santa Anna] was over-confident, and he communicated this feeling to those under him, giving the enemy an advantage that he could not have had otherwise. . . . [O]n the 21st of April everything was lost, men, arms, and reputation.

--José Enrique de la Peña Narrative

 

Genl. Houston, Santa Anna & Cos

    bullet“Genl. Houston, Santa Anna & Cos,” by Edward Williams Clay, lithograph cartoon by H. R. Robinson. New York: H. R. Robinson, 1836. Lithograph, CN 01255, Prints and Photographs Collection.

In this popular print the victorious General Houston, dressed in colorful Indian garb, vents his moral wrath on the defeated Mexican commanders. The contemporary lithograph suggests how deeply the events of the Texas Revolution resonated in the United States.

(Versión en Español)

     
     
   

The Texian Grand March

    bulletEdwin Meyrick, Texian Grand March, for the Piano Forte. New York: William Hall & Son, 1835 [sic]. CN 01226, Texas Collection Library.

This sheet music, "Respectfully dedicated to Genl Houston and his brave Companions in Arms," carries an idealized rendition of Santa Anna's surrender to Houston based on the earliest news reports. Publishers in the nineteenth century often illustrated their sheet music with covers depicting political and military events and heroes of the day.

(Versión en Español)

     
     
Among the 730 prisoners whose lives were spared, perhaps to suffer greater tortures than death itself, were 50 leaders and officers, including the commander in chief, his secretary, and his chaplain, whose names are found in the accompanying narrative.

--José Enrique de la Peña Narrative

 

Relación de los Gefes y oficiales que cayeron prisioneros en la acción de San Jacinto el 21 de Abril de 1836

    bulletRelación de los Gefes y oficiales que cayeron prisioneros en la acción de San Jacinto el 21 de Abril de 1836,” Matamoros, July 1, 1836. Autograph document, CN 10456, José Enrique de la Peña Collection.

Topping this official list of commanders, officers, and wounded taken prisoner at San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, were the “Most Excellent Señor Presidente” [Santa Anna] and his generals Cos and Almonte.

(Versión en Español)

     
     
In order to save his life, [Santa Anna] signed an ignominious agreement that degrades him and is in every way shameful.

--José Enrique de la Peña Narrative

  Santa Anna to Vicente Filisola, April 22, 1836 - page 1  Santa Anna to Vicente Filisola, April 22, 1836 - page 2
    bulletSanta Anna to Vicente Filisola, April 22, 1836. Autograph letter signed, Julia Sinks Papers.

General Santa Anna wrote to General Filisola the day after the battle at San Jacinto, telling of his capture by the Texas army and ordering Filisola to remove the Mexican army beyond the Rio Grande.

(Versión en Español)

     
     
   

The Devil's Comical Texas Oldmanick, 1837. With Comic Engravings of All the Principal Events of Texas

    bulletThe Devil's Comical Texas Oldmanick, 1837. With Comic Engravings of All the Principal Events of Texas. New York: Fisher & Turner, 1836. Texas Collection Library.

(Versión en Español)

     
     
. . . General Filisola has painted a sad and pathetic picture of the physical and moral condition of the army. It was, he reports, in a most wretched state, because of the long march made without clothing, without food supplies, without reserves, practically wiped out by the plague . . . and exposed to the enemy's harassment from the rear. . . .

--José Enrique de la Peña Narrative

 

"Evacuation of Texas! By the Mexicans under Filisola!" in The Devil's Comical Texas Oldmanick, 1837

    bullet"Evacuation of Texas! By the Mexicans under Filisola!" in The Devil's Comical Texas Oldmanick, 1837. New York: Fisher & Turner, 1836. Texas Collection Library.

The Devil's Comical Texas Oldmanick is an example of the popular genre of cheap comic almanacs that flooded booksellers' shelves beginning in the 1830s. This one contained nineteen cartoon caricatures depicting the personalities and events of the Texas Revolution. Cartoonists had a field day denigrating the Mexican army in retreat.

(Versión en Español)

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