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Exhibits

"To Whom Was This Sacrifice Useful?":
The Texas Revolution and the Narrative of José Enrique de la Peña

 

"[O]n the 21st of April everything was lost, men, arms, and reputation."

 

Texas Official!! Broadside

Republic of Texas Army, Texas Official!!, New Orleans, 1836. Broadside, CN 01841, Broadside Collection.


The cry Remember the Alamo! that the enemy shouted as he dealt his blows served to increase his fury during that terrible moment, to make the conflict more bitter for our men, and to avenge twice over their comrades who had fallen at the place of that name.

--José Enrique de la Peña Narrative

 

This broadside was the first to announce the Texan victory at San Jacinto. It includes the text of Santa Anna's three orders to his forces from San Jacinto, dated April 22, 1836, in which he announces his surrender and instructs them to cease hostilities.



 
 

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Genl. Houston, Santa Anna & Cos

"Genl. Houston, Santa Anna & Cos," by Edward Williams Clay, lithograph cartoon by H. R. Robinson. New York: H. R. Robinson, 1836. Lithograph, CN 01255, Prints and Photographs Collection.


[Santa Anna] was over-confident, and he communicated this feeling to those under him, giving the enemy an advantage that he could not have had otherwise. . . . [O]n the 21st of April everything was lost, men, arms, and reputation.

--José Enrique de la Peña Narrative

 

In this popular print the victorious General Houston, dressed in colorful Indian garb, vents his moral wrath on the defeated Mexican commanders. The contemporary lithograph suggests how deeply the events of the Texas Revolution resonated in the United States.

 
 


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The Texian Grand March

Edwin Meyrick, Texian Grand March, for the Piano Forte. New York: William Hall & Son, 1835 
[sic]. CN 01226, Texas Collection Library.

 

 

 

 

 

This sheet music, "Respectfully dedicated to Genl Houston and his brave Companions in Arms," carries an idealized rendition of Santa Anna's surrender to Houston based on the earliest news reports. Publishers in the nineteenth century often illustrated their sheet music with covers depicting political and military events and heroes of the day.

 


 

 

 

 

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Relación de los Gefes y oficiales que cayeron prisioneros en la acción de San Jacinto el 21 de Abril de 1836

Relación de los Gefes y oficiales que cayeron prisioneros en la acción de San Jacinto el 21 de Abril de 1836, Matamoros, July 1, 1836. Autograph document, CN 10456, José Enrique de la Peña Collection.


Among the 730 prisoners whose lives were spared, perhaps to suffer greater tortures than death itself, were 50 leaders and officers, including the commander in chief, his secretary, and his chaplain, whose names are found in the accompanying narrative.

--José Enrique de la Peña Narrative

 

Topping this official list of commanders, officers, and wounded taken prisoner at San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, were the "Most Excellent Señor Presidente" [Santa Anna] and his generals Cos and Almonte.

 

 

 


 


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Santa Anna to Vicente Filisola, April 22, 1836 - page 1 Santa Anna to Vicente Filisola, April 22, 1836 - page 2

Santa Anna to Vicente Filisola, April 22, 1836. Autograph letter signed, Julia Sinks Papers.

 

In order to save his life, [Santa Anna] signed an ignominious agreement that degrades him and is in every way shameful.

--José Enrique de la Peña Narrative

 

General Santa Anna wrote to General Filisola the day after the battle at San Jacinto, telling of his capture by the Texas army and ordering Filisola to remove the Mexican army beyond the Rio Grande.

 

 














 

 

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The Devil's Comical Texas Oldmanick, 1837. With Comic Engravings of All the Principal Events of Texas

 

 

 

 

The Devil's Comical Texas Oldmanick, 1837. With Comic Engravings of All the Principal Events of Texas. New York: Fisher & Turner, 1836. Texas Collection Library.

 

 

  

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"Evacuation of Texas! By the Mexicans under Filisola!" in The Devil's Comical Texas Oldmanick, 1837
"Evacuation of Texas! By the Mexicans under Filisola!" in The Devil's Comical Texas Oldmanick, 1837. New York: Fisher & Turner, 1836. Texas Collection Library.






 

 

 . . . General Filisola has painted a sad and pathetic picture of the physical and moral condition of the army. It was, he reports, in a most wretched state, because of the long march made without clothing, without food supplies, without reserves, practically wiped out by the plague . . . and exposed to the enemy's harassment from the rear. . . .

-José Enrique de la Peña Narrative


The Devil's Comical Texas Oldmanick
is an example of the popular genre of cheap comic almanacs that flooded booksellers' shelves beginning in the 1830s. This one contained nineteen cartoon caricatures depicting the personalities and events of the Texas Revolution. Cartoonists had a field day denigrating the Mexican army in retreat.

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