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Guide to 51st through 60th Speakers

Guide to 51st through 60th Speakers

WINGATE STUART BARRON
(1889–1984)
51st Speaker
(1929–1931)

Presided over

The 41st Legislature's regular session, January 8 to March 14, 1929; the 41st Legislature's 1st called session, April 22 to May 21, 1929; the 41st Legislature's 2nd called session, June 3 to July 2, 1929; the 41st Legislature's 3rd called session, July 3 to July 20, 1929; the 41st Legislature's 4th called session, January 20 to February 18, 1930; and the 41st Legislature's 5th called session, February 19 to March 20, 1930.

Born on February 6, 1889, and raised in Grimes County in Southeast Texas, Wingate Stuart Barron graduated from Sam Houston Normal Institute in Huntsville where he received a teaching certificate. After moving back home, he began a teaching career, but by 1910 he won election at age 21 as Grimes County's school superintendent.

Barron then pursued a career as an attorney and he was admitted to the bar in 1914. He practiced law in Bryan before winning a race for the Texas House in 1924. Barron served three consecutive terms. As a member of the Legislature, Barron focused on improvement of public schools and much of his speakership was devoted to the issue.

While Barron was speaker, the Legislature passed bills establishing age six as the minimum age for school children, reorganizing the State Board of Education and establishing physical education programs. Illness forced Barron to hand over his duties to Rep. Fred H. Minor, however.

After his speakership, Barron turned down offers to run for statewide office and returned to Bryan where he again practiced law and later became the local secretary-treasurer of the Federal Land Bank. In 1940, Barron received an appointment as judge of the 85th District, an office he held until 1955. Serving on the Board of Directors of the State Bar of Texas from 1956 to 1959, Barron remained in Bryan the rest of his life, dying on February 12, 1984, at the age of 95.

University Materials Related to Speaker Barron

Books:

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Vertical File: Barron, Wingate Stuart (Center for American History)

Contains a small number of newspaper clippings, focusing on Barron's career as a judge following his speakership. The four clippings include a November 18, 1952 Austin American story on Barron's assessment of a purposed small-loan law that would have capped monthly interest rates at three percent; a February 11, 1954, Dallas Morning News story describing the denial of a plea by Duval County School Superintendent R. L. Adame that felony charges against him be dropped; and two copies of a February 13, 1984, Austin American-Statesman obituary, "Former Texas House Speaker, Wingate Barron, dies at 95.

The file also contains a copy of a June 28, 1966, letter from Barron to Truett Latimer, executive director of the Texas State Historical Survey Committee, declaring his intention to attend the dedication of the Bay City historical marker recognizing the first speaker of the Texas House of Representatives during the period of the Texas Republic. Barron recalls a story in which he was questioning Henry Gates Steen, who wanted to be a House page, asking him if his legs were long enough to run the various errands for members of the Legislature. Barron writes that to his surprise Steen said, "Mister, what this Legislature needs is brains, not legs."

Top


FRED HAWTHORNE MINOR
(1888–1976)
52nd Speaker
(1931–1933)

Presided over

The 42nd Legislature's regular session, January 13 to May 23, 1931; the 42nd Legislature's 1st called session, July 14 to August 12, 1931; the 42nd Legislature's 2nd called session, September 8 to October 3, 1931; the 42nd Legislature's 3rd called session, August 30 to September 21, 1932; the 42nd Legislature's 4th called session, November 3 to November 12, 1932.

Born on a farm near the North Central Texas town of Lewisville in Denton County, Texas on December 11, 1888, Minor attended North Texas State Normal College (now the University of North Texas), where he received a teacher's certificate. For four years, Minor taught at an elementary school before earning his law degree in 1916 at the University of Texas at Austin

The next year, Minor opened his private law practice in Denton and quickly became active in Democratic Party politics, winning the post of Denton County Democratic chairman from 1918 until 1924. From 1922 to 1926, he also served on the Denton City Commission, and was the chair of the commission the last two years of his tenure. Minor won his first term in the state House in 1926. During his second term, he served as acting speaker of the House during the illness of Speaker W.S. Barron.

Minor later pointed to passage of a 1931 oil-proration law, which aimed at curbing overproduction in the East Texas oilfield, as the most important accomplishment of his speakership. After the discovery of the oilfield near Kilgore in 1930, legal and illegal drillers flocked to the area, wildly overproducing oil and bringing prices disastrously low for the Texas economy during the early years of the Depression. Laws passed under Minor's speakership strengthened the powers of the Texas Railroad Commission to regulate the oil industry, to enforce its rules, and to prop up oil prices along the way.

After his speakership, Minor in 1943 received appointment by Governor Coke R. Stevenson to the Liquor Control Board. Minor rose to the chairmanship of the board in 1948. Minor then returned to Denton, where he served on the school board. He died in Denton on April 24, 1976, at the age of 87.

University Materials Related to Speaker Minor

Books:

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Top


COKE STEVENSON
(1888–1975)
53rd Speaker
(1933–1937)

Presided over

The 43rd Legislature's regular session, January 10 to June 1, 1933; the 43rd Legislature's 1st called session, September 14 to October 13, 1933; the 43rd Legislature's 2nd called session, January 29 to February 27, 1934; the 43rd Legislature's 3rd called session, August 27 to September 25, 1934; and the 43rd Legislature's 4th called session, October 12 to November 10, 1934

The 44th Legislature's regular session, January 8 to May 11, 1935; the 44th Legislature's 1st called session, September 16 to October 15, 1935; the 44th Legislature's 2nd called session, October 16 to November 14, 1935; and the 44th Legislature's 3rd called session, September 28 to October 27, 1936.

Born on March 20, 1888, in Mason County in Southwest Texas, Coke Robert Stevenson's formal school experience consisted of only seven years of three-month school terms. Working as a janitor at the Junction State Bank, he quickly assumed the duties as the bank's bookkeeper and by age 20 he became cashier. Spending nights studying the law, he passed the state bar examination in 1913. Opening a private law practice, Stevenson eventually became Kimble County attorney from 1914 to 1918, followed by a term as county judge from 1919 to 1921.

Stevenson first won election to the Texas House of Representatives in 1928, and served there until 1939. As a legislator, speaker, lieutenant governor, and then governor, Stevenson focused on implementing strict, even harsh, spending limits. Early on in his House career, he authored a bill creating the office of state auditor, the first step towards Texas creating a modern budget system.

Stevenson also displayed his fiscal conservatism in his opposition to Gov. Ross Sterling's $100,000,000 highway bond program in the 1931–1933 term. Stevenson insisted on a pay-as-you-go system for road building and his successful obstruction of the governor's agenda raised his profile in the state House and provided the first evidence of his leadership abilities

Winning the support of former governors Jim and Miriam Ferguson, Stevenson became the first person in Texas history to serve two consecutive terms as House speaker, from 1933 to 1937. In his second term as speaker, Stevenson blocked Gov. James Allred's attempts to fund a pension program previously approved by voters. During his second term as speaker, the Texas House passed a bill requiring all Texas drivers to obtain state licenses. The speaker was issued license plate number 1, a distinction he held for the rest of his life.

Stevenson then successfully campaigned for lieutenant governor and held that office from January 10, 1939, to August 4, 1941. Stevenson became governor when W. Lee O'Daniel resigned as the state's chief executive after winning a special election for the United States Senate. After filling out the rest of O'Daniel's term, Stevenson then won elections in his own right in 1942 and 1944. His five-and-a-half year term as governor was at the time the longest consecutive service of any Texas governor.

Stevenson fiercely defended segregation throughout his public career. He stepped down as governor in 1947 and ran for one more public office, entering the highly controversial 1948 United States Senate race against Lyndon Johnson. It became the only race Stevenson ever lost. Johnson won by 87 votes in the closet Senate race in American history, and one marked by charges of voter fraud.

Stevenson unsuccessfully challenged the election results before the United States Supreme Court, and made a plea to the United States Senate, which was refused. After this, the former Democratic governor began publicly supporting Republicans, backing GOP presidential candidates Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956, Richard Nixon in 1960, Barry Goldwater in 1964, and Nixon again in 1968. Stevenson died at the age of eighty-seven on June 28, 1975 in San Angelo.

University Materials Related to Speaker Stevenson

Books:

The years of Lyndon Johnson: Means of Ascent. Written by Robert A. Caro. New York: Knopf, 1982–.

Contains an extensive discussion of Lyndon Johnson's 1948 Senate race against Coke Stevenson. 

E 847 C34 1982 V.1 PCL Stacks
E 847 C34 1982 V.1 PCL Stacks Copy 2
E 847 C34 1982 V.1 PCL Stacks Copy 3
E 847 C34 1982 V.1 PCL Stacks Copy 4
E 847 C34 1982 V.1 PCL Stacks Copy 5
E 847 C34 1982 V.1 PCL Stacks Copy 1
E 847 C34 1982 V.1 PCL Stacks Copy 2
E 847 C34 1982 V.1 PCL Stacks Copy 3
E 847 C34 1982 V.1 Center for American History. Use in library only.
E 847 C34 1982 V.1 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
E 847 C34 1982 V.1 Public Affairs Library

Yellow dogs and Republicans: Allan Shivers and Texas two-party politics. Written by Ricky F. Dobbs. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, c2005.

Internet table of contents
F 391 S562 D63 2005 PCL Stacks
F 391 S562 D63 2005 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

The establishment in Texas politics: the primitive years, 1938–1957. Written by George Norris Green. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979.

F 391 G76 PCL Stacks
F 390 G74 1984 PCL Stacks
F 390 G74 1984 PCL Stacks Copy 2
LAW F 391 G76 Law Library
Internet Access limited to users with UT Austin EID
F391 G76 Public Affairs Library
F 391 G76 Center for American History. Use in library only. TXC-ZZ Collection
F 391 G76 Center for American History. Use in library only.

Ballot box 13: how Lyndon Johnson won his 1948 senate race by 87 contested votes. Written by Mary Kahl. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1983.

KF 4976 J63 K33 1983 PCL Stacks
KF 4976 J63 K33 1983 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW KF 4976 J63 K33 1983 Law Library

Mister Texas, the story of Coke Stevenson. Written by Booth Mooney. Dallas, Tex.: Texas Printing House, 1947.

F 391 S849 M665 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391 S849 M665 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
LAW UNITED STATES TEXAS 81 M779 Law Library Rare Books. Use in library only.

The American way; Coke Stevenson, as Texanic as the mesquite tree, gives ample proof that honesty, industry and frugality still are seeds of success. Written by Charles E. Simons. n.p.: 1941?.

- Q - TZZ 976.409 ST48BS Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
- Q - T976.409 ST48BS Center for American History. Use in library only.

L.B.J.'s climb to the White House. Written by Arthur Stehling. Chicago, Ill.: Adams Press, c1987.

E 847.2 S74 1987 PCL Stacks

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Coke R. Stevenson: a Texas legend. Compiled and published by Frederica Burt Wyatt and Hooper Shelton. Junction, Tex.: Shelton Press, c1976.

F 391 S849 W938 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391 S849 W938 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
F 391 S849 W938 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Documents:

Program. Inauguration, Honorable Coke R. Stevenson, Governor of Texas. House of Representatives. August 8, 1941, Austin, Texas. Austin, Texas: 1941.

TZZ 976.409 ST48YT Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Vertical Files and Scrapbooks:

Scrapbook (1): 1939–1941 (Center for American History)

Clippings focus on Stevenson's term as governor. An August 3, 1941, Austin Tribune article "Coke Stevenson Will Be 77th Governor of Lone Star State," provides a biographical sketch. (The Tribune counted governors of Texas appointed by Spain and Mexico). Several clippings deal with Stevenson's life as a rancher and with his 1941 negotiations with the state Legislature on issuance of road bonds. A September 10, 1941, Austin Tribune article, "Governor's Message to the 47th Legislature," deals largely with the state's highway fund controversy. A September 12, 1941, Austin Statesman article, "Letter From 'Polled Herefords' Is Just One Item in Rapidly Growing Collection of Governor Who Likes Horses, Jokes," describes what the newspaper calls the "Stevensonia" piling up in the governor's office. Items sent by his fans to Stevenson from across the state include deer heads, sculptures of horses, and pictures of Stevenson with the state legislatures he presided over as speaker.

Scrapbook (2): 1942 (Center for American History)

The scrapbook includes a January 4, 1942, Dallas Morning News article, "Wife of Governor Dies; Rites Today at Junction," that emphasizes the role Mrs. Stevenson played as First Lady. Several other stories note the role of Texas-based defense plants in World War II and Stevenson's promotion of war bonds. A clipping from the April 3, 1942, Dallas Morning News, "Writer Acclaims Stevenson as Earthy Symbol of Texans, In Poise, Faith and Hospitality," quotes San Antonio journalist Gladys Campbell, who describes the governor as accessible, friendly and well loved by his constituents. Several articles quote Stevenson's positive assessments of the Allies' progress in battling Hitler and report on his support of various drives designed to aid American troops. A May 26, 1942, Dallas Morning News article, "Governor Hits Rationing Plan for Gasoline," covers Stevenson's opposition to gas rationing in Texas. A June 12, 1942, Dallas Morning News article, "No Fireworks to Mark Race By Stevenson," notes the governor's plan to wage a low-key re-election bid.

Vertical File (1): Stevenson, Coke Robert, Sr. (Center for American History)

The file contains an undated gubernatorial campaign card for Stevenson. It also holds a copy of the November 1942 issue of South Texan: Official Publication of the South Texas Chamber of Commerce which bears the headline "Stevenson and Smith A Team To Tie To," in which the governor and Lt. Gov. John Lee Smith are praised. Stevenson is applauded for his opposition to gas rationing in Texas. The publication praises Smith for his criticisms of the Roosevelt administration's "incompetence" and hypocrisy in demanding sacrifice from the American people while failing to be fiscally prudent. Two clippings from 1944 note Stevenson's opposition to holding a special session of the Legislature in order to pass a bill exempting soldiers from the poll tax and making absentee voting by soldiers easier.

The file also holds a January 1, 1946, Dallas Morning News article, "Coke Stevenson Doesn't Want Job in the U. S. Senate," in which Stevenson remarks that he is "just not fitted for the Washington pattern." Other clippings cover Stevenson's last days as governor, including his farewell address. A May 22, 1946, Austin American clipping, "Coke 'Too Busy' to Answer Demo Loyalty Questionnaire," covers Stevenson's refusal to answer questions submitted by the State Democratic Executive Committee regarding his loyalty to the national party. Stevenson claims he has already answered the questions in past press conferences in which he stated he always votes the straight party ticket. A May 31, 1946, Austin American story, "Coke Declares Against Running," concerns Stevenson's decision to not seek a third term as governor. A December 12, 1946, Daily Texan article, "Coke Stevenson Will Ask Emergency Action," covers the governor's decision to submit a bill establishing a separate state university for African Americans as an emergency item for the 50th state legislature. The effort was in response to the possible integration of the University of Texas.

An October 19, 1948, Dallas Morning News story, "Coke Still Democrat, He Says, Despite Bolt," covers a radio address by Stevenson. Still bitter over his loss in the Democratic primary for Senate that year, an election in which Stevenson lost by 87 votes to Lyndon Johnson, the former governor says he will back Republican nominee Jack Porter. Stevenson charges Johnson with vote fraud in the address and says the reputation of Texas will be stained by the inevitable Congressional investigation into the matter.

Other articles cover Stevenson's successful legal career in the late 1940s and early 1950s, following his departure from public life, and the birth of Stevenson's daughter, Jane, in January 1956 when the former governor was 67. An October, 19, 1952, Dallas Morning News article notes that "Coke Joins Backers of Eisenhower."

Vertical File (2): Stevenson, Coke Robert, Sr. (Center for American History)

Contains a random collection of clippings from the 1940s to the 1990s, including an October 2, 1943, Houston Post article by Stevenson in which he discusses the problems faced by Texas farmers and the role of Texas-based defense industries in winning World War II. A June 10, 1954, Corpus Christi Caller story, "Still Nursing a Bitter Memory, Stevenson Supports Dougherty," concerns Stevenson's endorsement of State. Rep. Dudley Dougherty against Lyndon Johnson in his re-election bid for the Senate. Other articles center on Stevenson's 1956 support for Dwight Eisenhower and Stevenson's public battle with Dr. Homer P. Rainey, the University of Texas' former president. While Stevenson served as governor, UT regents fired Rainey because of his support for tenured, supposedly too-liberal professors.

The file holds several 1950s and 1960s retrospectives on Stevenson's career, many stressing his fiscal frugality as governor, his love of the outdoors and his lack of nostalgia for political life. An October 14, 1964, Dallas Times Herald article covers Stevenson's support for Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater. A March 20, 1967, Dallas Morning News article, "Ex-Governor Hailed at Dedication Event," notes the placement of an historical marker dedicated to Stevenson on the Kimble County Courthouse lawn.

Finally, the file includes a June 29, 1975, Dallas Times Herald article, "Former Gov. Stevenson dead at 87," in addition to a June 29 obituary from the Dallas Morning News and a June 30 obituary from the Daily Texan; and a negative review of the second volume of Robert Caro's four-part biography of Lyndon Johnson, "The unforgiving biographer," by Garry Wills, printed in the March 22, 1990, Sherman Democrat.

Vertical File (3): Stevenson, Coke Robert, Sr. (Center for American History)

The file contains random clippings from the early 1940s, but most date from 1946 and concern the end of Stevenson's gubernatorial term, speculation over who might serve as Stevenson's successor and what direction they might take, as well as discussion of a possible Stevenson run for the Senate.

Vertical File (4): Stevenson, Coke Robert, Sr. (Addresses and Pamphlets) (Center for American History)

This file contains random newspaper clippings, mostly from the 1940s, but also including a February 3, 1991, New York Times column by Lyndon Johnson biographer Robert A. Caro "My Search for Coke Stevenson." Two clippings concern the issue of whether "communistic teaching" was being offered in Texas schools. An October 28, 1944, Saturday Evening Post article "Calculatin' Coke," by Lewis Nordyke explores the reasons for Stevenson's popularity in Texas and describes his devotion to limited government spending and "state's rights." The file also contains:

  • An invitation to the inaugural reception of Gov. W. Lee O'Daniel and Lt. Gov. Coke R. Stevenson January 17, 1939.
  • A March 2, 1939, address by Lt. Gov. Stevenson delivered at Washington-On-The-Brazos commemorating the signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence.
  • A typed copy of a Stevenson speech delivered over the Texas Quality Network and radio station KNOW on April 6, 1942, regarding Army Day and the importance of the armed forces to powerful nations in world history
  • A typed copy of a Stevenson speech delivered over the Texas Quality Network on March 9, 1942, calling the nation a country of "Paul Reveres" and commenting on a recent visit to an aviation plant.
  • A typed copy of a Stevenson speech delivered over the Texas Quality Network and radio station KNOW on March 30, 1942, in which he reminds listeners of wartime victories against great odds achieved by George Washington in the American Revolution. He urges listeners to participate in the rubber conservation drive called for by President Franklin Roosevelt.
  • A typed copy of a May 18, 1942, Stevenson speech delivered over the Texas Quality Network and radio station KNOW noting the meeting in the state of the Southern Baptist Convention and the observation of "I Am An American Day."
  • A typed copy of a May 25, 1942, Stevenson speech delivered over the Texas Quality Network and radio station KNOW in which he notes that it is the season for high school graduations and comments on the importance of education in America.
  • A typed copy of a Stevenson speech delivered over radio stations KNOW, WOAI, KPRC, and KRLD on June 15, 1942, regarding that year's primary election and the war program.
  • A typed copy of an August 24, 1942, summer commencement address made by Stevenson at the University of Texas at Austin in which he warns graduates that Americans face, in the form of the Axis Powers, a "threat . . . more cruel, more relentless, more terrifying, than any which we have ever known." Stevenson asks of the graduates an "all-out contribution of physical strength, mental skill, and spiritual courage in behalf of a common cause which deserves well our full measure of devotion."
  • A copy of a January 7, 1943, proclamation by Stevenson declaring the period from September 29 to December 7th to be devoted to the "active and vigorous recruitment for the Women's Army Corps."
  • A typed copy of a Stevenson speech delivered January 9, 1943, over the Texas Quality Network in which the governor compares the role of gasoline in the twentieth century to the role played by the rifle, the ax and the saddle in civilizing Texas in the 19th century. Stevenson notes the importance of gasoline in the Texas economy and uses this to argue against Roosevelt's proposal for gas rationing. He closes with a summation of Texas' contribution to the war effort.
  • Two copies of a January 13, 1943, address delivered to the 48th Legislature concerning the state of the state. Stevenson comments that because of needs generated by World War II, the state of Texas is prevented from embarking on an ambitious legislative program. Stevenson, however, calls for changes in the electoral law to require Texas candidates to declare money spent purchasing radio airtime. He also asks for the Legislature to take seriously the constitutional requirement to redraw legislative districts after each census, and, without specifics, asks for the Legislature to consider means to improve the state budget process.
  • Three copies of the January 19, 1943, inaugural address of Stevenson in which he reflects on a passage by the English poet Thomas Grey which he feels is prophetic of American and British victory in World War II. He also notes the high quality of life enjoyed by people living under democracies.
  • A March 13, 1943, proclamation issued by Stevenson asking all county judges and mayors in the East Texas region affected by 145 fires to mobilize all volunteers available for emergency duty. At that point, he notes, 200 foresters are already fighting the fires.
  • An undated booklet, possibly published in 1945, "Shall We Shackle a Texas Heritage?" produced by the Statewide Committee of Oil Operators and including a forward by Gov. Coke Stevenson, which describes the importance of the Texas oil industry to the national economy and to the war effort. The booklet was produced in response to provisions of the Anglo-American Petroleum Treaty that would allegedly remove control of oil production from the state and from the oil industry.
  • Two copies of a December 29, 1945, Stevenson speech delivered in the state Capitol marking the centennial of Texas statehood. 

Vertical File 5: Stevenson, Coke Robert, Jr. (Center for American History)

The file contains clippings on the son of the former governor. Several stories focus on the younger Stevenson's career on the state liquor board, with several reports from 1968 regarding alleged irregularities at the board. These stories quote critics who charge that the agency under Stevenson was under the control of the liquor industry. The file also contains two obituaries from 1988.

Top


ROBERT W. CALVERT
(1905–1994)
54th Speaker
(1937–1939)

Presided over

The 45th legislature's regular session, January 12 to May 22, 1937; the 45th Legislature's 1st called session, May 27 to June 25, 1937; and the 45th Legislature's 2nd called session, September 27 to October 26, 1937.

Born February 22, 1905, in Lawrence County, Tennessee, Robert Wilburn Calvert was placed in the State Home in Corsicana in 1912 at the age of seven after his father passed away and his mother was too poor to raise her children. He nevertheless graduated from high school while residing at the home and earned an undergraduate and a law degree at the University of Texas at Austin in 1931. Upon receiving his diploma, Calvert moved to Hillsboro, where he practiced law and soon became district attorney.

Calvert first won election to the Texas House of Representatives in 1933. During his three terms in the House, Calvert drew upon his experiences in the State Home, supporting legislation that provided benefits to the blind, and to neglected and dependent children. Calvert also backed a bill that provided for the temporary commitment of the mentally ill and helped create the Old Age Assistance Commission, an agency later renamed the Texas Welfare Department and which is now called the Texas Department of Human Services.

After leaving the Legislature, Calvert served as county attorney in Hill County from 1943 to 1947 and was chair of the Texas Democratic Executive Committee from 1946 to 1948. Winning an election as an Associate Justice of the Texas Supreme Court in 1950, Calvert held that position until 1961, when Texas voters elected him elected Chief Justice. Justice Calvert served in that capacity until 1972. After Calvert's retirement in 1972, he was appointed chair of the Texas Constitutional Revision Commission in 1973. An advocate of judicial reform, Calvert called for combining the state Supreme Court, which handles civil litigation, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals into a single final appellate court.

Following his public career, Calvert joined the law firm of McGinnis, Lockridge, and Kilgore. Calvert wrote an autobiography, Here Comes The Judge: From State Home to the State House, published in 1977. Calvert died in Waco on October 6, 1994 at the age of 89.

University Materials Related to Speaker Calvert

Books:

Here comes the judge: from state home to state house. Memoirs of Robert W. Calvert. Edited by Joseph M. Ray. Waco: Texian Press, c1977.

KF 373 C349 A3 PCL Stacks
KF 373 C349 A3 Center for American History. Use in library only.
KF 373 C349 A3 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
KF 373 C349 A3 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
LAW KF 373 C34 R3 Law Library Copy 1
LAW KF 373 C34 R3 Law Library Copy 2
LAW KF 373 C34 R3 Law Library Rare Books Copy 3. Use in library only.

Allan Shivers: the Pied Piper of Texas politics. Written by Sam Kinch and Stuart Long. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (c. 1973).

F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks
F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection Copy 2. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Public Affairs Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Documents:

Calvert, Robert Wilburn, papers, 1965–1975. Center for American History

Robert Wilburn Calvert, born in 1905, was Chief Justice of the Texas Supreme Court from 1961 to 1972. The collection contains correspondence, reports, proposals, provisions, minutes, books, and newspaper clippings relating to Calvert, judicial reform and to Calvert's activities as chairman of the Constitutional Revision Commission.

A Texas Supreme Court trilogy: oral history interview(s) ... Interviewed by H.W. Brands. Austin, Tex.: Jamail Center for Legal Research, The University of Texas School of Law.

The University of Texas School of Law and the Tarlton Law Library collected oral history interviews with three of the Supreme Court of Texas' former chief justices as a contribution to the 1986 Texas Sesquicentennial celebration; interviews conducted between Dec. 1985 and June 1986.

LAW KFT 1712 T49 1998 Law Library Copy 2. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1712 T49 1998 Law Library Copy 4. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1712 T49 1998 Law Library Copy 5.
LAW KFT 1712 T49 1998 Law Library Archives Copy 1. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1712 T49 1998 Law Library Rare Books Copy 3 Use in library only.

Oral memoirs of Robert W. Calvert, 22 June 1972. c. 1991.

"Texas Judicial Systems Project."
Interview covers early life up to the time of his bar exam, including time at the University of Texas School of Law. 

LAW KF 373 C34 A3 1991 Law Library Rare Books. Use in library only.

In memoriam: Honorable Robert W. Calvert. Austin, Tex.: s.n., 1995.

Remarks by Joe Kilgore and Joe R. Greenhill during a special session of the Supreme Court of Texas, in memory of former Chief Justice Robert W. Calvert.

LAW KF 373 C34 K54 1995 Law Library Copy 3
LAW KF 373 C34 K54 1995 Law Library Rare Books Copy 1. Use in library only.
LAW KF 373 C34 K54 1995 Law Library Rare Books Copy 2. Use in library only.

Vertical File: Calvert, Robert W. (Center for American History)

Contains several clippings concerning Calvert's capture of the speaker's office in 1936, as well as 1946 stories concerning his appointment as state Democratic chairman by incoming Gov. Beauford Jester and speculation on his possible entry in a future gubernatorial or lieutenant governor's race. Stories from 1944 to 1950 center on Calvert's role as state party chair and his efforts to maintain unity between those loyal to the national party and those splitting ranks over Truman's civil rights policies. A February 28, 1948, Dallas Morning News story, "Calvert Willing To Quit Truman," quotes Calvert as saying it was not necessary to abandon the Democratic Party in order to reject incumbent President Harry Truman and as declaring that "Forced social equality is tyranny."

Articles from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s center on Calvert's service on the state Supreme Court. An April 30, 1966, Dallas Morning News article and a May 1, 1966 Dallas Times Herald article quotes Calvert as criticizing Martin Luther King, Jr.'s comment that citizens have a moral obligation to violate unjust laws. King, Calvert remarks, has done "more than any other one person to prevent a racial bloodbath in the South . . . [but that does not] entitle him to set himself above the Congress, state Legislatures, and city councils . . ."

A March 14, 1971, Houston Post article quotes Calvert as saying that all judges should be subject to a mandatory retirement age to ensure their physical and mental vigor. Clippings from 1971 note Calvert's intention to retire, with his retirement covered by several 1972 stories. Several stories from 1973 to 1975 note Calvert's support for a new state Constitution. Obituaries from October 1994 provide retrospectives on Calvert's career.

The file also contains a flier for a "Texas Democratic Barbecue" to be held at Will Rogers Memorial Coliseum on April 20, 1948, to discuss "the radical departure in the United States from our constitutional concept of a federal government to a national government of centralized power" and to form strategy to "free" the state from "the domination of Washington politicians, Northern machine bosses, and minority groups." Calvert, as state party chair, is listed as the co-chair of the arrangements committee. Two fliers for Calvert's book, "Here Comes the Judge" are also included.

Top


ROBERT EMMETT MORSE
(1896–1957)
55th Speaker
(1939–1941)

Presided over

The 46th Legislature's regular session, January 10 to June 21, 1939.

Born in Houston April 8, 1896, Robert Emmett Morse enlisted in the army to serve in World War I, and for two years held the position of first lieutenant in the infantry. Returning to civilian life, Morse launched a career as a real estate developer and became secretary of the statewide Texas Association of Real Estate Boards from 1923 to 1926.

First winning election to the state House of Representatives in 1926, Morse served for nine consecutive terms, chairing the House Committee on Commerce and Manufactures in 1929 and 1930, and the Committee on State Affairs in 1931 and 1932. While in the Legislature, Morse attended Sommerville Law School (later Dixie University) in Dallas and was admitted to the bar in 1939, the same year he rose to the speakership.

Morse's tenure as speaker from 1939 to 1941 was marked by a never-resolved impasse with Governor W. Lee O'Daniel over the chief executive's proposed statewide pension plan. Under Morse, the House also passed a law that established Texas Soil Conservation Districts. This period also saw the Legislature deed more than 700,000 acres in Brewster County to the federal government in order to establish Big Bend National Park.

Following his speakership, Morse, served two more terms in the Legislature. Leaving public life, Morse permanently settled in Austin and became general counsel for the Wholesale Liquor Dealers Association. He died in Austin on August 19, 1957 at the age of 61.

University Materials Related to Speaker Morse

Books:

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Vertical File: Morse, R. Emmett (Center for American History)

The slender file contains a March 2, 1949, Dallas Morning News story, "House Honors Ex-Speakers With Banquet," noting an event hosted by Morse in Austin. Also included is a clipping from the April 22, 1953, Austin American, "Emmett Morse to Head State Freedom Drive," which describes the former speaker's work in behalf of a drive by Henry Ford II to fund pro-American radio broadcasts in Eastern Europe. The file holds a page from the House Journal with a resolution passed by the 55th legislature in August 1957 in memory of Morse. Also contained are two copies of an August 20, 1957, Austin American obituary "R. Emmett Morse, Civic Leader, Dies"; and an August 21, 1957, Dallas Morning News story, "Austin Rites Set for Civic Leader R. Emmett Morse," detailing funeral arrangements.

Top


HOMER L. LEONARD
(1899–1979)
56th Speaker
(1941–1943)

Presided over

The 47th Legislature's regular session, January 14 to July 3, 1941; and the 47th Legislature's 1st called session, September 9 to September 19, 1941.

Born on January 14, 1899, in Licking, Missouri, Homer L. Leonard earned a degree in mining engineering at the School of Mines and Metallurgy at the University of Missouri in 1922, where he was also editor of the school newspaper. After working as a geologist and surveyor for oil companies in both Oklahoma and Kansas, Leonard became a science and math teacher in Colorado. He then returned to the School of Mines and for a time became a math, physics and field geology instructor before settling in 1927 in the Rio Grande Valley, where he published the McAllen Monitor newspaper.

Leonard first won election to the Texas House of Representatives in 1930 as a member of Hidalgo County's Good Government Party. Two years later, courts ruled the group was not a valid political party, but Leonard's supporters waged a successful write-in campaign, which sent him back to the state House in 1933, where he remained until 1946. Leonard studied law while a member of the House and was admitted to the bar in 1939. His colleagues selected him to serve a relatively uneventful term as speaker in 1941.

After leaving the Legislature in 1946, Leonard sold his printing business in McAllen and resettled in Austin, where he waged an unsuccessful campaign to return to the state House in late 1946. The Texas Brewer's Institute named him general counsel, a post he held for 25 years, until 1971. Active in charities combating alcoholism and cystic fibrosis, Leonard died on February 14, 1979 at the age of 80.

University Materials Related to Speaker Leonard

Books:

Austin and Commodore Perry. Written by A. Garland Adair and E. H. Perry, Sr. Brig. Gen. Paul Wakefield and Homer Leonard are also credited as co-authors. Austin: Texas Heritage Foundation, 1956

F 394 A9 A58 PCL Stacks
F 394 A9 A58 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 394 A9 A58 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 394 A9 A58 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
F 394 A9 A58 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Allan Shivers: the Pied Piper of Texas politics. Written by Sam Kinch and Stuart Long. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (c. 1973).

F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks
F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection Copy 2. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Public Affairs Library

The Constitution of the State of Texas. Authorized by the House concurrent resolution no. 54. By Homer Leonard. Austin, Texas: Texas Legislature, 1943.

Publication of the Texas Constitution authorized by Homer Leonard, Speaker, and the Texas House, includes amendments adopted through Nov. 5, 1940.

LAW KFT 1601 1876 A344 1943 Law Library Copy 3
LAW KFT 1601 1876 A344 1943 Law Library Rare Books Copy 1. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1601 1876 A344 1943 Law Library Rare Books Copy 2. Use in library only.

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Vertical File: Leonard, Homer (Center for American History)

The file contains a May 19, 1946, Austin American-Statesman article, "Homer Leonard Announces for Solon Job Here." The file also holds various clippings from his 1946 campaign and two copies of a January 21, 1951, Austin American article, " Homer (Go!) Leonard," that describes the former speaker's busy public career. In a January 11, 1952, Austin American article, "Toastmastering's Secrets Revealed By an Old Master," Homer Leonard describes the keys to effective public speaking. The file holds two copies of that article as well as several stories from the 1960s and 1970s describing Leonard's role as chief lobbyist for Texas Brewers Institute, the state brewers' association.

The file also contains two different campaign cards from 1946 for one of Leonard's House campaigns for Travis County, Place 1. Four other cards invite supporters to hear Leonard over radio station KNOW "7:30 Friday evening."

Also included is an August 9, 1946, letter from Henry W. Stillwell, Superintendent of Public Schools in Texarkana. Stillwell responds to a request by Leonard by enumerating how Leonard has supported public education. Stillwell mentions Leonard's support for setting up a teacher retirement system and for increases in school spending and teacher salaries. The letter was apparently sent to voters with another endorsement letter, dated August 15, 1946, from Elizabeth M. Alley, a mathematics teacher from University High School, in which she extols Leonard's efforts on behalf of education. The file also includes a cover for the book Austin and Commodore Perry; and two copies of a pamphlet entitled "Homer Leonard: Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives, 47th Legislature, 1941" that contains a biographical sketch by A. Garland Adair originally printed in The Menard News.

Top


MARION PRICE DANIEL
(1910–1988)
57th Speaker
(1943–1945)

Presided over

The 48th Legislature's regular session, January 12 to May 11, 1943. 

Born on October 10, 1910, in the Southeast Texas town of Dayton in Liberty County, Marion Price Daniel earned a law degree from Baylor in 1932 and entered private practice in Liberty, where he achieved fame successfully representing two notorious murder suspects.

He first won election to the Texas House of Representatives in 1939, where he made his mark as one of the most visible members of the "Immortal 56," a coalition of lawmakers strongly opposed to the imposition of a state sales tax called for by Gov. W. Lee “Pappy” O'Daniel. At the start of his third term, Daniel won the House speaker's race against incumbent Homer Leonard, whose support for the sales tax proved politically fatal. Daniel served one quiet term as speaker, presiding over a wartime Legislature that showed no interest in new programs and which became the first in 40 years to not pass a single tax bill.

Daniel enlisted as an army private following the United States' entry into World War II and graduated from officer's candidate school in Lexington, Virginia, as a judge advocate general. After service in the Pacific, Daniel earned a discharge from the Army with a rank of captain. Returning to Texas, he won election as the youngest state attorney general in the country.

During his six years as Texas attorney general, Daniel oversaw more than 5,000 lawsuits, and wrote more than 2,000 bills for the Texas Legislature. He was credited with successfully defending against more money and land claims than any attorney general in Texas history. In that post, however, he lost in his efforts to defend the state's segregation laws in the case of Heman Marion Sweatt, a black postal clerk seeking admission to the University of Texas' law school. That 1950 case, Sweatt v. Painter, provided an important precedent for the 1954 United States Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education, which outlawed segregation in the nation's public schools. Daniel proved more successful in breaking up most of the state's organized gambling rings and he made a name for himself in his attempts to defend the state's ownership of its Tidelands against the federal government

When the United States Supreme Court ruled against Texas and the state lost revenues from offshore lands rich in oil, Daniel bolted the national Democratic Party, supporting Republican Presidential candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower. That same year, in 1952, Daniel won a seat in the United States Senate on the "Texas Democrat" platform. He soon wrote a bill giving Texas control of the Tidelands, legislation similar to a bill President Harry Truman had earlier vetoed. On May 22, 1953, Eisenhower signed the Tidelands bill into law. Because of this legislation, the Permanent School Fund received hundreds of millions of dollars in additional revenues.

Daniel returned to Texas to run for governor and upon receiving the Democratic Party's nomination in 1956, he resigned from the Senate. Daniel won reelection as governor in 1958 and 1960. During his tenure, Daniel supported laws providing for prison reform, water conservation, increased teachers' salaries, and improved state care for the mentally ill. Daniel also successfully pushed for creation of the Texas State Library and Archives Building. His biggest legislative defeat came in 1961 when the Legislature passed a state sale tax over his objections. The bill became law without his signature and injured him politically in his bid for an unprecedented fourth term for governor in 1962, which he lost to John Connally.

Daniel returned to Liberty and practiced law there and in Austin. In 1967, President Lyndon Baines Johnson named him head the Office of Emergency Preparedness. Governor Preston Smith appointed Daniel to fill a vacancy on the Texas Supreme Court in 1971. He won election to the court in his own right in 1972 and 1979, and then retired in order to avoid a potential conflict of interest during his second term when his son Marion Price Daniel, Jr. ran for attorney general. (The younger Daniel ultimately lost the Democratic primary.) Named a trustee of Baylor University, Daniel died on August 25, 1988, at which time he had held more public offices than anyone else in Texas history.

University Materials Related to Speaker Daniel

Books:

Barn Building/Barn Burning: Tales of a Political Life From LBJ Through George W. Bush and Beyond. Written by Ben Barnes and Lisa Dickey. Albany, Tex.: Bright Sky Press, 2006.

F 391.4 B37 A3 2006. PCL New Books Collection.
LAW F 391.4 B37 A3 2006.

Executive mansions and capitols of America. Written by Jean Houston Daniel and Price Daniel. Waukesha, Wis.: Country Beautiful; distributed by Putnam, New York, 1969

"All Governors and First Ladies have contributed photographs or articles, or both. Each Governor's wife has either furnished or personally written the description and history of her State's mansion."

- Q - E 159 D3 PCL Stacks
- Q - E 159 D3 PCL Stacks Copy 2
- Q - E 159 D3 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
- Q - E 159 D3 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection Copy 2. Use in library only.
E 159 D3 Architecture Library
E 159 D3 Architecture Library Copy 2

The drafting of legislative documents. Written by Price Daniel, Attorney General of Texas. Austin, Texas: s.n., 1949?.

LAW KFT 1621.5 B5 A83 1949 Law Library Copy 1
LAW KFT 1621.5 B5 A83 1949 Law Library Copy 2
LAW KFT 1621.5 B5 A83 1949 Law Library Copy 3
LAW KFT 1621.5 B5 A83 1949 Law Library Copy 4
LAW KFT 1621.5 B5 A83 1949 Law Library Copy 5
LAW KFT 1621.5 B5 A83 1949 Law Library Copy 6

Yellow dogs and Republicans: Allan Shivers and Texas two-party politics. Written by Ricky F. Dobbs. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, c2005.

Internet table of contents
F 391 S562 D63 2005 PCL Stacks
F 391 S562 D63 2005 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Allan Shivers: the Pied Piper of Texas politics. Written by Sam Kinch and Stuart Long. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (c. 1973).

F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks
F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection Copy 2. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Public Affairs Library

Texas giant: the life of Price Daniel. Written by Dan Murph; foreword by President George W. Bush. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, c2002. F 391.4 D46 M87 2002 Center for American History. Use in library only.

F 391.4 D46 M87 2002 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
LAW F 391.4 D46 M87 2002 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 3. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Theses:

The first administration of Governor Price Daniel. Written by James Clyde Martin, Jr. Austin, Texas: The University of Texas, 1967. Thesis (M.A.)–University of Texas at Austin, 1967.

T1967 M364 Request at Periodicals Desk PCL Level 2. Use in library only. Item in library storage facility.

Price Daniel: the life of a public man, 1910–1956. Written by David Rupert Murph. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University, 1975. Thesis (Ph.D.)–Texas Christian University, 1975.

F 391.2 D3 M86 1975A Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Documents:

Heman Marion Sweatt, petitioner, vs. Theophilus Shickel Painter (president of the University of Texas) et al., respondents: brief for respondents. Price Daniel, Attorney General for Texas, Joe R. Greenhill, first Assistant Attorney General, E. Jacobson, Assistant Attorney General, attorneys for respondents. Austin, Texas: s.n., 1950?.

LAW KFT 1592.2 T488 1950 Law Library Rare Books Copy 1. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1592.2 T488 1950 Law Library Rare Books Copy 2. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1592.2 T488 1950 Law Library Rare Books Copy 3. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1592.2 T488 1950 Law Library Rare Books Copy 4. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1592.2 T488 1950 Law Library Rare Books Copy 5. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1592.2 T488 1950 Law Library Rare Books Copy 6. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1592.2 T488 1950 Law Library Rare Books Copy 7. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1592.2 T488 1950 Law Library Rare Books Copy 8. Use in library only.
KF 4153 I5 1949 PCL Stacks
KF 4153 I5 1949 PCL Stacks Copy 2
KF 4153 I5 1949 PCL Stacks Copy 3

Sovereignty and ownership in the marginal sea and their relation to problems of the continental shelf. By Price Daniel. Austin, Texas?: s.n., 1950?.

"Prepared for the Forty-fourth Conference of the International Law Association, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 30, 1950."

LAW JX 4115 D35 1950 Law Library Copy 1
LAW JX 4115 D35 1950 Law Library Copy 2
TZZ 347.7 D225S Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
T347.7 D225S Center for American History. Use in library only.
T347.7 D225S Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.

Spanish and Mexican law precedents relating to the legal status of the sub-soil of the territorial sea and of the high seas: a memorandum. Prepared at the request of Honorable Price Daniel Attorney General of Texas (by) Graves & Dougherty. Austin, Tex.: 195–.

G341.57 G783S Benson Latin American Collection. Use in library only. In library storage facility - ask at circulation desk.
G341.57 G783S Benson Latin American Collection Copy 2. Use in library only. In library storage facility - ask at circulation desk.

Texas election laws: Texas election code, Texas penal code provisions relating to elections. By Price Daniel, Attorney General of Texas. Austin, Texas: s.n., 1952.

LAW KFT 1620 A3 1952 Law Library

Texas publication laws. Compiled by Price Daniel, Attorney General of Texas. Austin, Texas: The Texas Press Association, 1951.

070.17 T3121T PCL Stacks Copy 1
070.17 T3121T PCL Stacks Copy 2
070.17 T3121T PCL Stacks Copy 4
070.17 T3121T PCL Stacks Copy 5
LAW KFT 1529 N4 A3 1951 Law Library

Dedication of Price Daniel Building: remarks of Joe R. Greenhill. Austin, Tex: s.n., 1996.

Remarks made in the Third Court of Appeals Courtroom, 204 West 14th St., Austin, Texas, June 7, 1996.
LAW KF 373 D34 G73 1996 Law Library Rare Books. Use in library only.

Scrapbooks and Vertical File:

Scrapbook (1): Oct. 1939–Jan. 1959. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

Scrapbook includes clippings covering Daniel's membership in the Young Democrats of Texas in the late 1930s and his tenure as state attorney general in the early 1950s. Several stories concern his involvement as attorney general in the legal dispute between Texas and the United States regarding control of the Texas Tidelands. One April 4, 1950, clipping from the Austin American, "Sweatt and Other Segregation Cases Accepted by High Court," concern the United States Supreme Court's agreement to hear the Sweatt v. Painter case that desegregated the University of Texas law school. Daniel is quoted as saying, "some people have feelings that make for conflict when the two races associate too closely. That is a fact that has to be faced. White men don't feel it a bit stronger than Negro men." Another clipping, "Price Daniel Backs Up Gaming Information Ban," from the April 22, 1950, Dallas Morning News details Daniel's support for proposed federal legislation that would bar interstate transmission of gambling information and shipment across state lines of slot machines.

Clippings from 1950 are dominated by the Tidelands dispute. A November 28, 1950, Daily Texan clipping, "Election Law Revisions Asked by Daniel," details changes in the state election code requested by Daniel. His planned revisions in state law followed a disputed district judge race in Duval County in which A.J. Vale won with a write-in campaign that he did not request and who asked to not be certified the winner. Among other proposals, Daniel calls for a law requiring the secret ballot, a practice not universal in Texas at the time. Two articles from April 1951 detail Daniel's support for General Douglass MacArthur, the Korean War general fired by President Harry Truman for insubordination. Daniel is quoted as saying that Dwight Eisenhower ought to be drafted for a presidential run and that Texas Democrats should support the effort. In a July 7, 1951, Dallas Morning News article, "Daniel Likens Iran Case To Tidelands Oil Grab,'" Daniel compares the federal government's actions in attempting to gain control of Texas Tideland oil to Iran's nationalization of its oil industry and implies that President Truman is a hypocrite for condemning the action of the Iranian government.

Clippings from August 1951 cover Attorney General Daniel's legal opinion that state employees can not be dismissed from their jobs for past membership in a "subversive" group, but can for present or future activities. Stories from October 1951 describe Daniel's campaign to get Texas Democrats to "dump Truman." A February 1, 1952 story from the Corpus Christi Caller, "Daniel Pledges Texas Voice in Washington," concerns the early days of his Senate bid and his pledge to roll back the "socialistic tendencies" of the Truman administration. A June 10, 1956 story from the Austin American-Statesman, "Meet Mrs. Daniel—Quiet, Efficient Coordinator of Busy Household," describes Jean Daniel's relationship with then-Gov. Price Daniel and her belief that her job is to "keep things as serene as possible at home. She believes that a man who has heard nothing but talk and noise all day should be able to come home to a happy, united family, eat a quiet meal, and find the rest and peace that home should mean." An August 9, 1958 Dallas Morning News article, "Daniel calls Off Duel But Fires Final Shot," concerns Daniel's verbal battle with Sen. Ralph Yarborough over control of the state Democratic convention that year.

Scrapbook (2): Sept. 1948–May 1953. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

Clippings center on Daniel's career as Texas attorney general. A September 7, 1953, Dallas Morning News story, "Changes Urged in Study of Texas' Revolution," notes that Daniel believes Texas schools should teach about the 1836 Texas Revolution more objectively in order to improve relations with Mexico. "It would help considerably," Daniel says, "if our children could understand that our war against Mexico was not a dispute between two races—it was simply a revolt against a tyrant, Santa Anna." Several other clippings from 1952 concern the Tidelands controversy.

Many stories filed here concern Daniel's campaign against Sen. Tom Connally and his attacks on President Truman. In several articles he describes the federal government as too big and rife with corruption. Articles from April 1952 cover Sen. Connally's decision to retire. The scrapbook also includes numerous subsequent Texas newspaper endorsements of Daniel. Articles from October concern Democratic Senate nominee Daniel's support for Republican presidential candidate Dwight Eisenhower and his rebuke from Democratic National Chairman Stephen Mitchell. A December 30, 1952 Dallas Morning News article, "Dixie Senators Backing Daniel," describes how other Southern senators planned to prevent the Democratic leadership in the Senate from marginalizing Daniel in committee assignments and to bar him from membership in the Democratic caucus. The Tideland controversy fills 1953 coverage of Daniel's Senate career, just as it did coverage of his term as attorney general.

Scrapbook (3): June 1953–Dec. 1955. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

Several July 1953 clippings concern the donation by Sen. Daniel of a pen Dwight Eisenhower used to sign the Tidelands bill to the Texas Memorial Museum. Clippings from August 1953 quote Daniel as saying that the administration lacked the will to win the war in Korea. A March 30, 1954 Marshall News editorial praises Daniel for opposing the admission of Alaska and Hawaii as states. According to the editorial, Daniel backs an amendment to the statehood bill that would make Alaska and Hawaii commonwealths. According to the Marshall News editorial, the Hawaiian population is "a mixture of Asiatics and the Pacific Islands with the natives of the Sandwich Islands and practically all European nations. They have some good citizens, but they are not, as a whole, the sort of people who should be given statehood."

Numerous articles from July and August 1954 concern the continued Tidelands controversy. Several articles from late 1954 and early 1955 cite Daniel's tempered support for Sen. Joseph McCarthy and his anti-communist investigations and quote Daniel as claiming that the United States Army bungled an investigation into possible communists in its ranks. Multiple clippings from May to November 1955 cite Daniel's call for Senate investigations into drug trafficking in America and for stiffer penalties for drug dealing. Several articles from November and December 1955 speculate on Daniel's interest in running for governor and House Speaker Reuben Senterfitt's criticisms of what he calls the "Draft Daniel" movement. Stories note polls showing Ralph Yarborough and Daniel as Texas voters' top two preferences for governor.

Scrapbook (4): 1956. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

Clippings concern Daniel's early Senate career. One January 10, 1956, Austin American article, "Daniel Panel Asks Death Penalty for Dope Cases," describes Sen. Daniel's support for a federal death penalty for those who smuggle or sell heroin to minors. Several articles from January 1956 center speculate whether Daniel will enter that year's gubernatorial race. A January 26, 1956, article, "Senterfitt, Phillips Slap at Daniel," describe the criticisms of Daniel's candidacy by state House Speaker Reuben Senterfitt and state Sen. Jimmy Phillips, both candidates for governor. Senterfitt says that Daniel could better serve Texas by staying in Washington to defend Texas and the principle of "states' rights" against integration. Phillips tries to tie Daniel to the veterans' land scandals erupting that year.

A February 6, 1956, Austin American article, "Electoral Plan Aims To Hike Vote Effect," covers Sen. Daniel's support for an amendment to the United States Constitution that would apportion the electoral college vote based on the popular vote in presidential elections. Several articles concern Daniel's support for a Natural Gas Bill that would remove independent producers from direct federal controls. A February 26, 1956, Dallas Morning News article, "It's Plain That No Trade Has Been Made," dismisses speculation that Sen. Daniel and Texas Gov. Allan Shivers have made a backstage deal concerning the 1956 or 1958 gubernatorial and Senate races, in spite of their similarity on the issues. Multiple articles from March cover Daniel's entry into that year's gubernatorial race. April articles concern Daniel's decision to return from the gubernatorial campaign to Washington so he could steer through the Senate his anti-heroin bill, coverage that continues through June when the Senate approves Daniel's death penalty proposal for those dealing heroin to minors.

Several articles from June and July concern Daniel's call for moderates and conservatives to unite in the gubernatorial race against "left-wing radical" groups like the CIO and the NAACP. A June 23, 1956 clipping, "Price Daniel Plans to Support Democratic National Ticket," quotes Daniel as saying he saw no issue that would cause him to back Republican President Eisenhower as he had in 1952. In several articles from the summer of 1956 concerning the gubernatorial race, Daniel attacks liberal opponent Ralph Yarborough for receiving financial support from labor unions and accuses Yarborough of planning to "soak" Texans with high taxes. Articles in late July concern the gubernatorial runoff between Daniel, who finished first in the primary, and Ralph Yarborough, who finished second. Other articles concern Daniel's support for federal drought relief money.

In an August 10, 1956, Dallas Morning News article, "Daniel Says NAACP Backing Yarborough," Sen. Daniel accuses his opponent Yarborough of receiving NAACP support because he received "87 percent" of the urban "Negro vote." Articles from late August center on Daniel's razor-thin lead in the gubernatorial runoff and his reluctance to announce if he will resign from the Senate. Reports from late August and September center on the certification of Daniel's victory in the governor's race. Other stories cover the struggles between the pro-Daniel and pro-Yarborough forces for control of the state Democratic Party. Other stories concern the successful attempt by Daniel's forces to place stringent pro-segregation planks in the state party's platform.

October articles focus on the confusion over when a special election would be held to pick a replacement for Daniel in the United States Senate and the public dispute between Daniel and Gov. Shivers over who is responsible for the confusion. Daniel charged that Shivers had not set an election date because he was trying to force Daniel to resign so he could pick a successor.

A December 1, 1956, Dallas Morning News article, "Daniel Against Federal Aid," details Daniel's opposition to Washington support for Texas schools, saying that such aid was just part of a pattern of overspending by the federal government. A December 5, 1956 Dallas Morning News article, "Integration Deemed Local Problem by Gov.-Elect Daniel," concerns Daniel's comments that the state would be unable to effectively deal with school desegregation and that the problem should be handled by local school boards. Several other articles deal with plans for the new governor's inauguration.

Scrapbook (5): Jan–June, 1958. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

January articles focus on the Tidelands controversy. Other articles include those focused on Daniel's convening of top state officials to improve efficiency and economy in state agencies, and a January 15, 1958, Dallas Morning News article, "Gov. Daniel Errs in Stand on Race Issue, Baptist Says," which recounts criticisms written by Dr. Joseph M. Dawson, a Southern Baptist leader living in Austin, published in an issue of Christianity Today. Dawson is quoted as saying, "My heart sinks when I observe that in his [Daniel's] official acts and in his candidating for high office, this fine Christian man does not consider that the Negro has infinite worth, at least not comparable to that of the white man." Other articles concern Daniel's warnings that conservative control of the Democratic Party was at risk in 1958. Articles on the liberal-conservative split within the state Democratic Party dominate much of the scrapbook. March articles focus on Daniel's charge that President Dwight Eisenhower has been timid in controlling what Daniel terms excessive imports of foreign oil. Other March articles detail Daniel's rejection of calls by state labor leaders to call a special session of the Legislature in order to address rising Texas unemployment.

An April 17, 1958, Dallas Morning News article, "Committee Set to Study Constitution," concerns the naming of a state advisory committee to study revision or replacement of the state Constitution. Other articles that month concern speculation over whether Daniel, not known for a sense of humor, was joking when he said in a San Jacinto Day speech in Houston that he was "reactivating" the Texas Navy in order to protect the state's rights in the Tidelands. May articles center on Daniel's call for an increase in the natural gas tax he says is needed to meet the state's current spending needs.

A May 17, 1958, Dallas Morning News article, "Daniel Again Vows War Against DOT," concerns Price's conflict with the liberal Democrats of Texas group within the state party. Other articles and editorials concern Daniel's claim that federal aid to state education threatened the independence of states on education policy. May stories focus on Daniel's successful work through the National Governors' Conference to prevent the Department of Defense from dismantling six National Guard units across the country. June stories center on the opening of Daniel's gubernatorial re-election campaign.

Scrapbook (6): 1957/1. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

One January 13, 1957, Houston Chronicle story, "Mrs. Daniel Treads Ancestor's Way to First Lady's Place in Texas," notes that Jean Daniel's great-great grandmother was Mrs. Sam Houston. The rest of the article concerns plans for the Daniel's gubernatorial inauguration, description of the gold decoration theme for the inaugural ball in Gregory Auditorium and of Mrs. Daniel's dress, which would be made of Italian silk satin. A January 9, 1957, Austin American article, "Price Will Act If Allan Won't" concerns the continued failure of Gov. Allan Shivers to set a special Senate election date to pick Daniel's replacement by the time of Daniel's January 15 swearing-in as governor. Daniel promises to set a date for election as soon as possible after he becomes governor. Articles about and newspaper photos of Daniel's January 15 inauguration dominate the scrapbook.

A January 17, 1957, Austin American article, "Price Spells Out 14 Points," concerns Daniel's priorities as governor, including a proposal to establish a statewide crime commission to monitor possible official misconduct. Daniel also proposes better lobby registration and control laws and passage of a code of ethics for state officials. These proposals are partly in response to a scandal in the state's veteran's land office in the mid-1950s. Several articles in late January concern Daniel setting April 2 as the date for the special Senate election.

Other stories center on Daniel's support for a bill requiring a runoff if no one gets a majority in the special Senatorial election, Daniel's opposition to re-instatement of Texas driving licenses to those convicted of drunk driving, and his criticism of outgoing Gov. Allan Shivers' last minute appointments to state offices. Subsequent articles cover Price's request that the Legislature abolish the current state board of insurance, all appointed by Shivers, in order to allow him to appoint a new board. Other articles, published in February, concern a bill by state Sen. Charles Herring of Austin that would cancel the April 2 special election and leave appointed Sen. William Blakely of Dallas in office for another two years. Daniel announces his opposition to that proposal.

Scrapbook (7): 1957/2. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

A March 3, 1957, Austin American-Statesman article, "Governors Issue an Appeal for Unfettered Oil Industry," includes comments by Daniel and others that the American economy depends on ending government restrictions and taxes on domestic oil production. A March 5, 1957, Dallas Morning News story, "House Expected to Extend Probe," concerns Daniel's acceptance of the resignation of House Rep. James E. Cox of Conroe, accused of taking a bribe to push legislation favorable to naturopaths. Daniel is also quoted as supporting further investigation into allegations of legislative bribery. A March 5, 1957, Daily Texan article, "Daniel Asks Tuition Hike," notes Daniel's proposal to the Legislature that in-state tuition be increased from $25 to $50 and that out-of-state tuition also be increased. Several articles concern debates over whether Daniel should delay a Senate special election to fill the seat Daniel left to become governor and allow appointed Sen. William Blakely to remain in office until 1959. Some articles cite concern over whether a Republican might win in the free-for-all special election, which will be conducted without party primaries or a runoff. If a Republican wins, the Senate would be tied with an equal number of Republicans and Democrats and control would effectively pass to the GOP because of Republican Vice President Richard Nixon's power to cast tie-breaking votes.

The scrapbook contains several feature photos of the Daniel family at the governor's mansion which ran in the March 17, 1957, Austin American-Statesman to accompany the article, "First Family Adapts to Mansion." Several articles deal with Daniel's support of continued investigation of both the veteran's land office and state insurance commission, both of which were rocked by scandal under Gov. Allan Shivers and the Legislature's passage of bills reforming the insurance commission. The May 29, 1957, Forth Worth Star-Telegram story, "Segregation Bills Signed by Daniel," concerns two new laws, one that allows school boards final authority in shifting students to and from integrated schools and the other which allows local option elections on integrating schools. Several previous stories describe Daniel's delay as he considered referring the bills to the state attorney general to determine their constitutionality. An October 23, 1958, Dallas Morning News article placed in the wrong scrapbook, "House Ducks Forcing Daniel on Race Issue," concerns the decision of House members to not pass a resolution demanding that Daniel declare if he is going to call a special session on segregation.

Scrapbook (8): Clippings, 1957, v. 3. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

A May 23, 1957, Dallas Morning News article, "Agreement Achieved on Insurance Board," details a bill that remakes the scandal-plagued state insurance board. The law allows the governor to appoint three new members who will be paid $15,000 for full-time work until Aug. 31, 1958, and then paid $50 a day plus expenses for part-time work. The members of the new board will be prohibited from receiving gifts from lobbyists or engaging in personal business transactions with those companies and the governor will be empowered to remove board members.

Several articles pertain to segregation bills passed by the Legislature and signed by Daniel. One bill gives school administrators standards other than race, such as mental ability, for assigning students to schools. A second law prohibits the integration of schools unless school district voters approve this action. The law also allows residents in the 100 already-integrated districts to petition for an election to re-segregate. Pro-integration legislators asked the governor to refer the bill to the state attorney general to rule on their constitutionality, but Daniel is quoted as saying the bills meet constitutional requirements.

A June 24, 1957, Austin American article, "School Opinion Given by Price," quotes Daniel from the national NBC telecast "American Forum" as saying that he does not believe that the Supreme Court decision on school segregation meant that local communities could not agree to have segregated schools. The governor says in the article that he believed desegregation would work in the 100 Texas districts where it had already been accomplished, but said that integrating schools could not happen by government fiat alone. Several articles from the summer of 1957 deal with Daniel's attempt to persuade Brazil to extradite BenJack Cage, indicted on theft and embezzlement charges in connection with the collapse of ICT Insurance Company the previous year. The stories note the lack of an extradition treaty between the United States and Brazil.

A July 17, 1957, Dallas Morning News article, "Tech Erred, Daniel Says," cites Daniel's criticism of Texas Tech regents, particularly J. Evetts Haley, for firing two professors, Byron Abernathy and Herbert Greenberg, for being too liberal. An August 12, 1957, Austin American article, "Texas Government Attains Worst Reputation in U.S." claims that the Texas government's reputation has been sullied by bribery scandals and scandals involving insurance regulation and embezzlement from veterans' land programs. Several articles in September cover Daniel's calls for tougher laws against driving while intoxicated.

A September 25, 1957, article, "Ike Adopts Tactics of Reconstruction, Gov. Daniel Says," reports that the governor sent a telegram to President Dwight Eisenhower protesting the dispatching of National Guard troops to Little Rock, Arkansas in order to implement a school desegregation order. The News quotes Daniel's telegram as asking Eisenhower if it was his intent to "occupy with troops every non-integrated school in the South."

Scrapbook (9): 1957, v. 4. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

Several stories in October cover the call for allowing a special session of the Legislature to consider a bill allowing the governor emergency power to close a school if it faces an integration order enforced by federal troops as happened in Little Rock, Arkansas. Daniel comments that he would prefer that the session not deal with segregation. The special session had originally been scheduled to deal with a lobbyist registration law, a water bill and other matters. An October 22, 1957, Daily Texan article, "Texas Legislature Mulls Pupil Placement Laws," discusses the recent United States Supreme Court decision voiding a Virginia law allowing school officials to move pupils for allegedly non-racial reasons. The Texas Legislature recently passed a similar law and it is uncertain whether the Texas law would now be overturned. Subsequent stories concern the stalling of the lobby bill and a crime bill in the year's first special session and the calling of a second special session to consider those proposals and the school closure bill. The school closure bill passes, as does a law that allows county judges to open up to public scrutiny the membership rolls of any organization "harassing" school operations, a bill meant to intimidate NAACP members. A third bill sets aside a $50,000 fund for the state attorney general to assist local school districts in battling desegregation orders. Several other articles pertain to the on-going Tidelands controversy.

Scrapbook (10): July–Dec. 1958. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

Early articles focus on Daniel's re-election bid for governor. A July 2, 1958, Austin American article, "Gotta Blue-Pencil the 'Largest?'" concerns a question by Daniel and others whether the line describing Texas as "the largest and grandest" of all the states in the official state song "Texas, Our Texas" would have to be rewritten to acknowledge the admission of Alaska to the Union. Other articles continue coverage of Daniel's battle with the liberal Democrats of Texas for control of the state party. A July 13, 1958, Houston Post article, "New Texas Taxes?" discusses the revenue options for the state government, which faces a $100 million to $140 million deficit over the next two years. A July 15, 1958, Dallas Morning News article quotes Daniel as questioning the commitment of two of his gubernatorial race opponents, state Sen. Henry Gonzalez and former Gov. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel, to preserving segregation.

An August 22, 1958, Dallas Morning News article, "Gov. Daniel Scorns Plea For Session," covers Daniel's rejection of a request by state labor leaders to call a special session of the Legislature in order to extend state unemployment benefits. An August 27, 1958, Austin American article, "Governor's Commutation Saves Condemned Negro," concerns Daniel's commutation of Norman Kizzee's death sentence to life imprisonment after the governor determined that Kizzee was mentally deficient and emotionally unbalanced. Defense attorneys argued that Kizzee received the death penalty because of the racial prejudices of the jury and of prosecutors. A September 8, 1958, Dallas Morning News article, "Voters Give Gov. Daniel Nod Over Yarborough" reports the results of a Texas Poll indicating that voters preferred that Gov. Daniel and Sen. Ralph Yarborough continue in their present offices and that Daniel was slightly more popular than Yarborough in the state.

September stories cover the floor demonstrations by liberals at the state party convention in San Antonio over the rejected nominations of two liberals to the State Executive Committee. October stories center on the state's budget deficit and Daniel's request for budget cuts before tax increases were considered. An October 22, 1958, Dallas Morning News article, "No Income, Sales Tax Seen by Gov. Daniel," quotes Daniel as saying that selective tax increases, such as on natural gas, would be sufficient to meet the state's budget needs without the need for a general sales tax or an income tax. A November 28, 1958, Dallas Morning News article, "Governor Approves Hale-Aikin Goals," concerns Daniel's public support for an education reform bill that would increase teacher pay by $800 and provide more funds for construction and improvement of campuses. In a speech to the Texas State Teacher's Association, he declines to support proposals to lengthen the school year from nine months to nine-and-a-half or ten months and said that money would not be available to fully fund the bill's proposed $235 million increase in state education spending. A December 17, 1958, Dallas Morning News story "Arlington College Plan Given Daniel's Blessing," covers the governor's support for making Arlington State a senior college.

Scrapbook (11): Jan. 1959–June 1959. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

A January 18, 1959, Austin American-Statesman article, "First Lady Jean Daniel Presides Graciously Over Texas' Mansion," centers on the Texas First Lady's preparations for her husband's second inauguration, including the dishes to be served at a luncheon and reception and the dress she has picked for the inaugural ball. Several other clippings focus on inaugural festivities and the scrapbook contains several news photographs from the inauguration.

"Caustic Daniel Fires Blast at Sales Tax," a January 31, 1959, Austin American clipping, centers on Daniel's opposition to State Rep. Frates Seeligson's proposal for a 1.5 percent general sales tax to close a looming $65 million deficit. In other stories, Daniel proposes covering the gap with a one-year increase in the state franchise tax and extending the tax to businesses headquartered out of Texas that do business in the state. A February 14, 1959, Austin American article "Delicate Status Seen at Rusk State Hospital," describes critical staffing shortages at the state mental health facility. Several mid-February articles deal with Daniel's angry reaction to a Sen. Ralph Yarborough speech to the National Association of School Administrators in Atlantic City in which he charged that Texas has an "inept government . . . blind to the needs of education."

Several stories in March center on the slow pace of that year's regular legislative session and the struggle the Legislature had with the budget deficit and choosing between several competing tax plans. The remainder of the scrapbook pertains to the failure of the Legislature to pass a budget by the middle of the summer. The budget still was not resolved at the end of a second special session in July.

Scrapbook (12): June 1959–June 1961. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

A June 26, 1959, Austin American story, "Popularity of Daniel Still High," reports that Gov. Daniel retains a 67% percent approval rate in spite of the failure of a regular session and two special sessions to pass a budget and the governor's tax plan. A budget was passed by the end of third special session August 6. An August 13, 1959 Uvalde Leader News story, "Texas' $2 1/2 Billion Budget Sliced Up; Effective Sept. 1," outlines the budget and how it is funded. Several stories in October and November center on speculation over whether Daniel will run for a third term as governor and the on-going battle between Texas and the federal government over the Tidelands. Daniel warns in another story that if a general sales tax is passed by the Legislature during a fourth special session in January, an income tax will be passed as well. The debate over when and if a special session to discuss funding of teachers pay raises will take place dominates news coverage through December 1959.

The governor's political plans are described in a January 15, 1960, Daily Texan article, "3rd Term Candidacy Announced by Daniel." A May 26, 1960, Dallas Morning News article, "Governor's Lady Writes History," concerns publication of Jean Daniel's "The Governor's Mansion of Texas."

Several stories in the fall of 1960 describe Daniel's continued opposition to a general sales tax, and his renewed call for a law that would authorize the state government to seize abandoned assets such as long-dormant bank accounts that go unclaimed. Daniel vows in some stories to keep the Legislature in Austin until this proposal is passed. Other stories concern Daniel's vague plan for a payroll tax that would in part offset the state's ongoing budget woes. The House defeats these proposals. Stories in early May focus on Daniel's opposition to the sales tax passed by the House. Daniel calls a special session for June 30. He makes a televised speech, covered in the June 1, 1961, Dallas Times Herald article "Tax Up to Public–Daniel," in which the governor calls for voters to contact their state representatives and senators to support nothing more drastic than a limited sales or excise tax. A May 31, 1961, Dallas Morning News story, "Daniel Defends Turman's Vote Killing Tax Measure," covers Speaker of the House Jimmy Turman's decision to cast a vote on a tax bill, which created a tie, effectively killing the legislation and creating the need for a special session.

Scrapbook (13): 10/30/52–1/10/69. Daniel, Price (Center for American History)

Clippings randomly cover state tax bills, Gov. Daniel's proposals for changes in state election laws, the 1961 special legislative session, a January 4, 1962, clipping from the Houston Post in which Gov. Daniel asks the Legislature to appropriate $156,500 for repairs to the San Jacinto Monument, and a January 26, 1962, Dallas Morning News story in which Daniel indicates he is strongly leaning towards running for a fourth term as governor.

Two clippings cover Daniel's announcement in February 1962 in which he declares his candidacy for a fourth term as governor. The stories also note right-wing General Edwin Walker's entry in the Democratic gubernatorial primary. An April 11, 1962, Daily Texan article, "Daniel Dedicates New State Archives," concerns the opening the new Texas Archives and Library building in Austin. Several articles from May and June 1962 concern Daniel's failure to make the runoff in the Democratic primary for governor and his decision to not endorse either John Connally or Don Yarborough, the first and second-place finishers. Articles from December 1962 cover a dinner held in Austin to honor Daniel and his public service record in Texas. Several articles from January 1963 concern Jean Daniel, the governor's wife, and Daniel family memorabilia to be donated to the state and the governor's mansion.

December 17, 1963, stories from the Daily Texan, and the Dallas Morning Newscover a Daniel speech to the YMCA in which he condemns an article just published in the Nation written by University of Texas Sociologist Reece McGee in which the professor blames the right-wing political atmosphere in Texas for the recent assassination of President John Kennedy in Dallas. An April 30, 1967, Houston Chronicle article, "Daniel Hits Leary Lecture," quotes the former governor as condemning Rice University's decision to host a speech by LSD advocate Timothy Leary. Clippings from September and October 1967 concern Daniel's appointment by President Lyndon Johnson as director of the Office of Emergency Planning.

Vertical File (1): Daniel, Price, Sr. (Center for American History)

The file contains the following:

  • A typed biographical sketch.
  • A February 1943 biographical sketch from the Texas Parade published when Daniel was Texas House Speaker.
  • Several 1950 and 1951 clippings covering Daniel's actions regarding the Tidelands controversy.
  • A January 2, 1954, Saturday Evening Post feature, "The Case of the Bumptious Young Texan," which focuses on disappointments in Daniel's early life and how he overcame these with an assertive personality. 
  • A June 17, 1959, and a July 17, 1959, section of the House Journal containing addresses from Gov. Price Daniel to the 56th Legislature concerning budgetary matters, including Daniel's call for a fairer share of the tax burden to be borne by natural gas pipeline companies.
  • Several clippings from the 1970s regarding Daniel's appointment to the Texas Supreme Court. 
  • An October 10, 1975, Dallas Times Herald article, "Ex-Gov. Daniel favors new constitution." 
  • Several clippings from mid-January, 1978, noting Daniel's decision to retire from the bench. 
  • An April 11, 1981, Victoria Advocate article, "Daniel Sr. weeps on witness stand," concerning the retired governor's testimony in a child custody case initiated against his former daughter-in-law Vickie Daniel following the shooting death of son Price Daniel, Jr. 
  • Several clippings from late August and early September 1988 covering the death of Daniel, his funeral and reminiscences of his career. 
  • An April 3, 1989, Austin American-Statesman feature, "Bigger, better governor's mansion in East Texas," concerning the Price Daniel home in Liberty, which was made from the blueprints of the governor's mansion, but includes two wings not included in the executive estate.

Vertical File (2): Daniel, Marion Price (Center for American History)

File contains two copies of a June 10, 1979, Dallas Morning News story by Carolyn Barta, "Price Daniel's Triple Crown," which notes that Daniel held more elective offices than any man in elective history. Daniel served as a state representative, state speaker of the house, state attorney general, United States senator, governor and then associate justice of the state supreme court. Daniel served three terms as governor, also unprecedented. The article was written in response to an Austin dinner held in his honor by the other five living governors. The file also holds an August 26, 1988, Dallas Morning News story, "Former Governor Daniel dies of possible stroke." Another article from the same issue of the Morning News, "Daniel's leadership praised," contains reminiscences from former Texas Sen. Ralph Yarborough, former governors Dolph Briscoe and Preston Smith, Lt. Gov. Bill Hobby and then-Vice President George H. W. Bush. Finally, the file contains an obituary for M. P. Daniel, Price Daniel, Sr.'s father, from the December 9, 1937, Cleveland (Tex.) Advocate.

Vertical File (3): Daniel, Price, Sr. (Miscellaneous) (Center for American History)

Items include the following:

  • Random correspondence from Daniel's career in the Texas House.
  • Random newspaper clippings from the 1950s covering Daniel's political career and features on Mrs. Jean Daniel.
  • Reprints from a March 1951 Dallas Morning News series on the Tidelands controversy.
  • Two fliers from Daniel's 1952 campaign for United States Senate.
  • Four copies of a January 1953 pamphlet on slick paper entitled "Under Texas Skies" printed by the Texas Heritage Foundation commemorating Price Daniel's swearing in as United States senator from Texas and listing all other Texas senators.
  • A January 2, 1954, Saturday Evening Post feature, "The Case of the Bumptious Young Texan," which focuses on disappointments in Daniel's early life and how he overcame these with an assertive personality;
  • Brochures for the 1957 inaugural of Gov. Price Daniel and Lt. Gov. Ben Ramsey and for the 1959 festivities.
  • Political cards, bumper stickers, pamphlets and signs from various campaigns.
  • A printed copy of a January 18, 1956, Daniel speech delivered in the United States Senate, "The Natural Gas Act."
  • A copy of the Price Daniel biography from the January 1956 issue of Current Biography.
  • A copy of a personal notebook with the title "Texas Tidelands Research" on the cover.
  • A feature from the October 1958 University of Texas at Austin Alcalde, an alumni publication, titled "First Lady," about Jean Baldwin Daniel, Price Daniel's wife, as well as her relationship with the governor, her experiences at UT and her work as First Lady.
  • Invitations for a Price Daniel Appreciation Dinner December 12, 1962.
  • Three clippings from July 1969 covering injuries suffered by John Daniel, son of Price Daniel, in a plane crash in Hawaii.
  • Clippings from July 1969 concerning Daniel's appointment to head a state commission to study car insurance rate increases.
  • An October 12, 1969, Dallas Morning News review of Jean and Price Daniel's book, Executive Mansions and Capitols of America.

Top


CLAUD H. GILMER
(1901–1983)
58th Speaker
(1945–1947)

Presided over

The 49th Legislature's regular session, January 9 to June 5, 1945.

Born on March 12, 1901, in Rocksprings in Edwards County in Southwest Texas, Claud H. Gilmer graduated from Rocksprings High School in 1919 and later completed a degree at Meridian Junior College. He taught school in Rocksprings for two years, becoming principal as well as football coach. Elected county judge of Edwards County at age 23, Gilmer received his law degree in 1929.

When the state House representative from Gilmer's district, Coke Stevenson, declined another term in the lower chamber to successfully run for lieutenant governor in 1938, Gilmer ran for the seat and won the general election. In 1945, his colleagues elected him House speaker, but he would achieve greater fame the next term when he returned to being just a member.

In 1947, he introduced a concurrent resolution calling for creation of a panel to study the state of public schools and to suggest improvements. A.M. Aiken introduced a similar resolution in the Senate. The resolution was adopted and supported by Gov. Beauford Jester, who appointed both Gilmer and Aiken to the panel, which subsequently became known as the “Gilmer-Aiken Committee.”

After 18 months of hearings and debate, the committee submitted its recommendations to the 51st Legislature. At this point, Gilmer had stepped down from his House seat, but the package of laws that resulted became known as the Gilmer-Aiken bills. Enacted in 1949, the legislation substantially increased teachers' salaries, providing regular increases for teachers based on years of service and the amount of education received. As a result, many teachers began attending summer classes for more training and even graduate degrees.

The laws also provided the first major state funding for local schools. Finally, it reorganized the State Board of Education, replacing the elected state superintendent of public instruction with an appointed commissioner of education, and provided that one member be elected from each congressional district. Finally, the new education laws also guaranteed that all Texas children would receive twelve school years of nine months, with a minimum 175 actual teaching days per year.

The laws attracted often bitter opposition from conservatives who attacked replacing the elected state superintendent with an appointed official as undemocratic and communistic. Others objected to a provision that barred parochial schools from using public school buses. Nevertheless, the bills passed. As a result, 4,500 school districts were consolidated into 2,900 more efficient units, reducing administrative costs even as state equalization funding supplemented local taxes.

In addition, higher salaries attracted more teachers to the classroom while pay incentives meant that the state's teachers were better educated. Meanwhile, education specialists improved the quality of campus staffs. With state funding in part dependent on daily attendance, school districts became more aggressive in ensuring that students were in the classroom and learning. All school funding and reform laws since have been within the framework provided by the Gilmer-Aikin Laws.

After serving on the Gilmer-Aikin Committee, Gilmer retired from public life to devote time to business interests at home. Practicing law, Gilmer ranched and owned the Rocksprings telephone company. He served as president of the Texas Telephone Association, and lobbied for that group before the Legislature. He also chaired the Board of Texas State Hospitals and Special Schools. Gilmer died in San Antonio on February 26, 1983 at the age of 81.

University Materials Related to Speaker Gilmer

Books:

Claud H. Gilmer, country lawyer: lone star lawmaker and Speaker of the House. Written by Vicki J. Audette and J. Tom Graham. (Rocksprings Tex.?) : Carson Gilmer and Norma Jean Babb, c2003.

F 391 G56 A84 2003 Center for American History. Use in library only.

Yellow dogs and Republicans: Allan Shivers and Texas two-party politics. Written by Ricky F. Dobbs. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, c2005.

Internet Table of contents
F 391 S562 D63 2005 PCL Stacks
F 391 S562 D63 2005 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Allan Shivers: the Pied Piper of Texas politics. Written by Sam Kinch and Stuart Long. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (c. 1973).

F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks
F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection Copy 2. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Public Affairs Library

The Gilmer-Aikin bills; a study in the legislative process. Written by Rae Files Still. Austin, Tex., Steck Co. (1950)

LAW KFT 1590 S75 Law Library Copy 1
KFT 1590 S8 Public Affairs Library
TZZ 328.373 ST54G Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 7
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 8
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 9
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 10
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 1
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 2
379.14764 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 1. In Collections Deposit Library. Ask at Circulation Desk.
T1949 ST54 PCL Stacks 5K Copy 1 Library Storage - Request Online or ask at Circulation Desk
T1949 ST54 PCL Stacks Copy 2 Library Storage - Request Online or ask at Circulation Desk

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846-1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846-1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Dissertations and Theses:

James Winfred Edgar: his role in the proposal, passage, and implementation of the Gilmer-Aiken laws. Written by Stephen Carroll Anderson. Austin, Texas: The University of Texas at Austin, 1984. Thesis (Ph. D.)–University of Texas at Austin, 1984.

DISS 1984 AN245 Request at Periodicals Desk PCL Level 2. Use in library only. Item in library storage facility.

A comparative study of selected phases of school administration in seven West Texas school districts before and after the inauguration of the Gilmer-Aikin program. Written by Rex Whiteford Lowe. Austin, Texas: The University of Texas at Austin, 1951. Thesis (M.Ed.)–University of Texas, 1951.

T1951 L951 PCL Stacks Copy 2
T1951 L951 Request at Periodicals Desk PCL Level 2 Copy 1. Use in library only. Item in library storage facility.

Impact and influence of Gilmer-Aikin legislation on curriculum practices in common schools in Haskell County, Texas. Written by Iva Brewer Palmer. Austin, Texas: The University of Texas at Austin, 1951. Thesis (M.Ed.)–University of Texas, 1951.

T1951 P182 PCL Stacks Copy 2
T1951 P182 Request at Periodicals Desk PCL Level 2 Copy 1. Use in library only. Item in library storage facility.

Documents:

Expenditures of the Gilmer-Aikin Committee of the 50th legislature to March 17th, 1949. Texas State Auditor's Dept. (Austin, 1949)

Copy Notes: Reproduced from typewritten copy.
T336.764 T313E Center for American History. Use in library only.
T336.764 T313E Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.

Minimum foundation school laws as amended 1957: (Gilmer-Aikin Laws) Senate Bills 115, 116, 117. Austin, Texas: Texas State Teachers Association, 1957?

T379.147 T312M 1957 Center for American History. Use in library only.
T379.147 T312M 1957 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
379.147 T312M 1957 PCL Stacks Copy 1. In library storage facility - ask at Circulation Desk

The minimum foundation school program in Texas: its costs and financing: report no. 4 in a survey for the State Board of Education. Austin: The League?, 1957.

Notes: "Fourth and final report of ... an evaluation ... of the Texas Minimum Foundation School Program ... requested by the State Board of Education."
LAW LB 2826 T4 T413 - Law Library

Vertical File: Gilmer, Claud H. (Center for American History)

Most clippings contained in the file date from 1949 to 1955 and concern the Gilmer-Aiken school finance law, with topics including court tests of the legislation, the differing impact of the law on urban and rural districts, debates concerning the bill in local school board races, and the support of public figures such Allan Shivers for the bill.

Items also include a January 25, 1948, Austin Statesman story, "Ex-Speaker Gilmer Third Leader to Leave House Floor," concerning the retirement of Gilmer, Woodrow Bean of El Paso and Harley Sadler of Sweetwater from the Texas House. Also in the file is an August 17, 1973, item from the Texas Mohair Weekly and Rocksprings Record, "Mr. and Mrs. Claud Gilmer Honored on Golden Wedding Anniversary, Aug. 15.” A February 27, 1983, Austin American-Statesman obituary for Gilmer and an August 17, 1984, Texas Mohair Weekly and Rocksprings Record obituary for Georgia Ruth Gilmer are contained in the file as well.

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WILLIAM OTEY REED
(1902–1969)
59th Speaker
(1947–1949)

Presided over

The 50th Legislature's regular session, January 14 to June 6, 1947.

The son of a hard-scrabble farmer who died when he was one, William Otey Reed was born in Dallas on May 12, 1902, and sold newspapers on the street corners of Dallas, often having to fight bare-knuckle with his competitors to get the best location. He dropped out of high school in 1917 and began work with the city water department. After three years, he got a job in the accounting department of the Texas & Pacific Railway. Reed ended up working for that company for 28 years, from 1920 to 1948, and he earned a law degree along with the way. Afterwards, he served on the railway's legal staff.

Reed first won election to the state House of Representatives in 1932 and would serve nine terms. He showed a particular interest in finances and in 1941 introduced a joint resolution that proposed a constitutional amendment that would prohibit the Legislature from appropriating more money in a biennial budget than could be covered by anticipated revenue. In 1942, Texas voters approved the amendment, which took effect in 1945.

Under this pay-as-you-go provision, the state comptroller of public accounts is required to provide each regular session of the Legislature with an estimate of anticipated state revenues for the next two years and the Legislature is required to hammer out a budget within those revenue limits or to provide new taxes to pay for any increase in spending. The governor can then sign the budget, contingent upon certification by the comptroller that it remains within budget estimates.

Reed became speaker in 1947 and afterwards served a final term in the House. Towards the end of that final term, in 1950, he waged an unsuccessful campaign for lieutenant governor. By 1948 Reed had left the Texas & Pacific Railway to practice with an independent law firm. After losing the 1950 lieutenant governor's race, he served as counsel for the Texas railroad industry in Washington, D.C., remaining there until his retirement in 1967. He died in Dallas on October 28, 1969, at the age of 67.

University Materials Related to Speaker Reed

Books:

Allan Shivers: the Pied Piper of Texas politics. Written by Sam Kinch and Stuart Long. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (c. 1973).

F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks
F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection Copy 2. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Public Affairs Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Vertical File: Reed, W. O. (Center for American History)

The file contains several stories on Reed's race for the speakership. It also holds two copies of a November 29, 1946, Dallas Morning News story, "Fists Talked for Future Speaker," describing Reed's humble beginnings, the death of his father when he was only one, his youthful days as a tough street fighter, his battle to get an education and his conservative economic philosophy. A January 14, 1947 Austin American story, "50th Legislature Convenes Today; Dispute Foreseen," details battles within the convening House over state spending and redistricting. A March 8, 1947, Austin American story, "Speaker and Family Very Glad He Got Job—And With It an Apartment To Live In," describes the Reed family's reactions to the official speaker's residence.

The file also contains a March 22, 1949, Dallas Morning News article, "W.O. Reed for Lt. Governor Talked by Legislative Friends" detailing support for Reed in 1950 if incumbent Lt. Gov. Allan Shivers does not seek re-election. A June 21, 1950 Dallas Morning News article, "Reed Makes Light of Popular Jinxes," about the candidate for lieutenant governor provides a biographical sketch and describes his love of the number 13. The article notes that he always paid his political filing fees with 13 pieces of money on the 13th days of a month and on a Friday if possible. He wore a horseshoe ring with the number 13 on it, the story says, and his three daughters have names with 13 letters in them. A pamphlet from Reed's campaign for lieutenant governor is also contain in the file, as are two obituaries of Reed dated October 29, 1969, one from the Dallas Morning News and another from the Houston Post.

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DURWOOD MANFORD
(1917–1988)
60th Speaker
(1949–1951)

Presided over

The 51st Legislature's regular session, January 11 to July 6, 1949; and the 51st Legislature's 1st called session, January 31 to March 1, 1950.

Born March 13, 1917 in the Gonzales County town of Smiley, Thomas Durwood Manford, Jr., attended two years at Southwestern University in Georgetown, before transferring to the University of Texas at Austin, where he earned his undergraduate degree. Manford attended the University of Texas law school for a year before receiving his law license. Upon the death of his father, Manford and his brothers managed several family businesses, including ranches, a grain and feed supply company, a grocery, and a butane business. Manford also ran an appliance store.

Manford won his first election to the Texas House of Representatives in 1940, serving the first of five consecutive terms. As a member, he became most known for passage of the 1943 Manford Act, which among other provisions, prohibited unions from making political contributions and required extensive record keeping for each union to be filed with the state.

Rising to speaker in 1949, Manford presided over the longest Legislative session in state history, one marked by bitter battles over the budget and control of Texas schools. During Manford's speakership, the House passed the landmark Gilmer-Aikin education reforms. The Legislature also created the Youth Development Council for administration of juvenile facilities, a licensing board for chiropractors and for naturopaths, the Sabine River Authority, the Texas Citrus Council, and the Real Estate Commission.

Additionally, the Legislature created a new medical branch for the University of Texas and new boards to govern Lamar College and North Texas College. Manford steered to passage bills creating the Legislative Budget Board and the Texas Legislative Council as well as legislation setting medical education requirements and reforming the prison system.

Manford served on numerous state boards after leaving the Legislature, including the Industrial Accident Board from 1957 to 1963 and the State Board of Insurance from 1965–1971. He also chaired the State Board of Water Engineers from 1962 to 1976. Manford died in Austin on March 24, 1988 at the age of 71.

University Materials Related to Speaker Manford

Books:

Claud H. Gilmer, country lawyer: lone star lawmaker and Speaker of the House. Written by Vicki J. Audette and J. Tom Graham. (Rocksprings Tex.?): Carson Gilmer and Norma Jean Babb, c2003.

F 391 G56 A84 2003 Center for American History. Use in library only.

The Gilmer-Aikin bills; a study in the legislative process. Written by Rae Files Still. Austin, Tex., Steck Co. (1950)

LAW KFT 1590 S75 Law Library Copy 1
KFT 1590 S8 Public Affairs Library
TZZ 328.373 ST54G Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 7
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 8
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 9
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 10
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 1
328.37 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 2
379.14764 ST54G PCL Stacks Copy 1. In Collections Deposit Library. Ask at Circulation Desk.
T1949 ST54 PCL Stacks 5K Copy 1 Library Storage - Request Online or ask at Circulation Desk
T1949 ST54 PCL Stacks Copy 2 Library Storage - Request Online or ask at Circulation Desk

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Vertical File: Manford, Durwood (Center for American History)

The file contains a pamphlet, "A Law Regulating Labor Unions, Etc.: The Manford Bill" printed by the Harris County Association for Industrial Peace and containing the entire bill authored by Manford and passed by the Legislature in 1943. The bill required labor organizers to register with the state and hold identification cards, prohibited unions from making political contributions, and required all unions to file extensive organizational and financial records.

Numerous clippings cover Manford's term as speaker, many focusing on the slow pace of the regular session and the formation of factions within the House including one led by the man who lost to Manford in the speaker's race, Joe Kilgore of McAllen. Manford's bout with measles and a legislative deadlock resulting in the regular session going over time are also covered. The file also includes a March 25, 1988 obituary from the Austin American-Statesman, "Ex-Speaker of state House Manford Dies."

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