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Guide to 61st through 70th Speakers

Guide to the 61st through 70th Speakers

REUBEN SENTERFITT
(1917–)
61st Speaker
(1951–1955)

Presided over

The 52nd Legislature's regular session, January 9 to June 8, 1951.

The 53rd Legislature's regular session January 13 to May 27, 1953; and the 53rd Legislature's first called session, March 15 to April 13, 1954.

Born in San Saba County in Central Texas on June 18, 1917, Reuben Senterfitt came from a ranching family and graduated as valedictorian at San Saba High School in 1935. He later earned a law degree at the University of Texas at Austin, where he edited the Texas Law Review.

Senterfitt first won election to the state Legislature in 1941. In his first year in the House, he co-authored a bill that created the M.D. Anderson Hospital in Houston, which became one of the leading cancer research institutions in the country. The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, launching United States involvement in World War II, during Senterfitt's first session as a state representative. He enlisted in the United State Navy, serving in the South Pacific while he continued to represent San Saba County.

In 1949 Senterfitt sponsored legislation that created the veterans' land program, designed to allow former servicemen to buy land at low interest. He also assisted Speaker Durwood Manford in creation of the Legislative Budget Board and the Texas Legislative Council and vocally supported both the state's pay-as-you-go constitutional amendment mandating balanced biennial budgets and the Gilmer-Aiken education reforms.

Senterfitt served seven terms overall, culminating in two consecutive terms as speaker. He became only the second person to serve two consecutive terms in that office, following Coke Stevenson who presided over the House from 1933 to 1937. As speaker, Senterfitt secured passage in 1953 of the bill allowing construction of the Dallas-Fort Worth turnpike.

During his speakership, Senterfitt also instituted the use of a unified budget. Prior to 1951, the Legislature had enacted separate biennial appropriations bills for different departments, such as the judiciary, state hospitals, and universities and colleges, as well as special-purpose appropriations bills. At Senterfitt's insistence, however, however, the 52nd Legislature implemented a new system in which biennial appropriations had to be consolidated into one general appropriations bill.

Founder of the law firm currently known as Senterfitt, Childress & Shook, he practiced law in San Saba County for fifty years. Senterfitt unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for governor in 1956, but subsequently served as city attorney for San Saba and county attorney for San Saba County. A life fellow of the Texas Bar Foundation and past president of the San Saba Chamber of Commerce, he currently lives in San Saba with his wife Pat.

University Materials Related to Speaker Senterfitt

Books:

Yellow dogs and Republicans: Allan Shivers and Texas two-party politics. Written by Ricky F. Dobbs. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, c2005.

Internet table of contents
F 391 S562 D63 2005 PCL Stacks
F 391 S562 D63 2005 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Allan Shivers: the Pied Piper of Texas politics. Written by Sam Kinch and Stuart Long. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (c. 1973).

F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks
F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection Copy 2. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Public Affairs Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Vertical File and Scrapbook: Senterfitt, Reuben (Briscoe Center for American History)

Contains extensive press coverage of Senterfitt's two sessions as speaker. The file includes an article from the July 1953 South Texan entitled "Speaker Reviews Activities of the 53rd Texas Legislature," four newspaper articles from 1955 and 1956 relating to Senterfitt's gubernatorial campaign and one feature photo of Mrs. Rueben Senterfitt from a June 6, 1956, edition of the Austin American-Statesman. The file also includes photos of Senterfitt from his days as speaker, and copies of speeches made to business groups.

Audiotape:

Rueben Senterfitt Interview, 1992.

Interview with Rueben Senterfitt conducted by the Capitol staff as part of the Capitol restoration project. Senterfitt discusses his career in the House of Representatives and his speakership.

AUDIO Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Rueben Senterfitt Interview, 2004.

Interview with Rueben Senterfitt and his wife Pat conducted at his San Saba home by Dr. Patrick Cox and Dr. Michael Phillips of the Center for American History's Texas House Speakers Oral History Project. Senterfitt describes his family history and his childhood in San Saba. He also details his days as a student at the University of Texas and his law career. He examines his role in the creation of the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and the state's Veteran's Land Program, and how he aided passage of the Gilmer-Aiken school reform laws. The interview also covers conflicts between conservatives and liberals in the state Democratic Party of the 1940s and 1950s, the politics of Senterfitt's speakership races and his failed run for governor as well as the difficulties surrounding congressional and legislative redistricting.

AUDIO Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Prints and Photographs Collection: (Briscoe Center for American History)

An official portrait of Senterfitt taken when he was Texas House Speaker.

Top


JIM T. LINDSEY
(1926–)
62nd Speaker
(1955–1957)

Presided over

The 54th Legislature's regular session, January 11 to June 7, 1955.

Jim Lindsey was born on a farm in Sand Hill, a community near the county seat of Boston in Bowie County on February 1, 1926. He graduated from James Bowie High School in Simms in 1941. He attended North Texas Agricultural College in Arlington, Texas for one year before enlisting in the United States Army Air Corps. Upon completion of his military career, Lindsey entered Baylor University Law School in 1945, earning his law degree in 1950.

Lindsey served as a member of the Texas Legislature representing a district that included Texarkana from 1949 to 1957. He was chair of the House Revenue and Taxation Committee and vice chair of the Legislative Audit Committee, the Legislative Budget Board, and the Texas Legislative Council. In his first term, Lindsey served as a floor leader during the debates that resulted in passage of the Gilmer-Aikin school reform bill.

He was elected speaker in 1955. Much of that session focused on passage of the Texas Business Corporation Act, the first major overhaul of Texas corporation laws in eight decades. Scandals over the Veterans Land Board and insurance regulation also occupied the Legislature that year. Finally, Lindsey oversaw a revision of the Texas Probate Code. After his one term as speaker, he retired from elective office. Lindsey subsequently served as chair of the Texas Democratic Executive Committee from 1956 to 1959.

Since leaving politics, Lindsey's business interests have ranged from the practice of the law to real estate and finance. He also owns a vineyard in Southern California. He and his wife Moja currently reside part of the year in Texarkana. They have five children and six grandchildren.

University Materials Related to Speaker Lindsey

Books:

Allan Shivers: the Pied Piper of Texas politics. Written by Sam Kinch and Stuart Long. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (c. 1973).

F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks
F 391 S562 K56 1974 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection Copy 2. Use in library only.
F 391 S562 K56 1974 Public Affairs Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Audiotape:

Jim T. Lindsey Interview, 2004.

Interview with Jim Lindsey conducted at his Redwood Valley, California, home by Dr. Michael Phillips of the Center for American History's Texas House Speakers Oral History Project. Lindsey describes his childhood in Bowie County, Texas, his time as a law student at Baylor University in Waco, North Texas Agricultural College in Arlington, and the University of Texas at Austin law school. Lindsey also discusses his military career during World War II and his experiences running for the House of Representatives. He describes his work in gaining passage of the Gilmer-Aiken educational reform laws. He also evaluates the performance of other speakers, such as Rueben Senterfitt and Durwood Manford, and governors such as Allan Shivers. Lindsey shares stories of living in the speaker's official residence and describes the evolution of speakers' powers in the twentieth century.

AUDIO Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Prints and Photographs Collection: (Briscoe Center for American History)

An official portrait of Lindsey taken when he was Texas House Speaker.

Top


WAGGONER CARR
(1918–2004)
63rd Speaker
(1957–1961)

Presided over

The 55th Legislature's regular session, January 8 to May 23, 1957; the 55th Legislature's first called session, October 14 November 12, 1957; and the 55th Legislature's second called session, November 13 to December 3, 1957.

The 56th Legislature's regular session, January 13 to May 12, 1959; the 56th Legislature's first called session, May 18 to June 16, 1959; the 56th Legislature's second called session, June 17 to July 16, 1959; and the 56th Legislature's third called session, July 17 to August 6, 1959.

Born in the small town of Fairlie in Hunt County in 1918, Waggoner Carr moved with his family at age 14 to Lubbock, where the future state attorney general graduated from Lubbock High School and Texas Technical College. Carr served in the United States Army Air Corps during World War II and, following his military service, earned his law degree from the University of Texas at Austin.

In 1948, Carr became district attorney in Lubbock, and served as county attorney the following year. He was first elected to the state House of Representatives in 1950, winning election as speaker in 1957. He won a second term as speaker two years later.

His speakership saw passage of the Texas Water Development Board, authorized by the Legislature to issue up to $200 million in water development bonds to assist local water projects. Other measures passed during his speakership included a constitutional amendment authorizing creation of a state office to promote Texas tourism, a rewrite of the state's juvenile crime laws, and approval of a new code of ethics for legislators and lobbyists. A history buff, Carr also secured passage of legislation financing a new state Library and Archives building.

Carr failed in his first race for state attorney general in 1960, but won the office in 1962 and again in 1964. During his time as state attorney general, he conducted a state investigation of the November 22, 1963 assassination of President John Kennedy in Dallas, Texas.

Carr lost races for the United States Senate in 1966 and for Texas governor in 1968 and then retired from public office. Carr and his wife Ernestine Story Carr lived in Austin, where he practiced law with the firm of DeLeon & Boggins. He served on the Texas Tech Board of Regents from 1969 to 1972.

Carr was found not guilty of charges stemming from the Sharpstown bank bribery scandal in 1974 and subsequently wrote of his experiences in the 1977 book Waggoner Carr: Not Guilty! Carr also authored a political memoir Texas Politics in My Rearview Mirror, published in 1993. Carr was writing a book on the outlaw Jesse James and another on Texas attorney generals since 1875 when he died from cancer in 2004.

University Materials Related to Speaker Carr

Books:

Barn Building/Barn Burning: Tales of a Political Life from LBJ through George W. Bush and Beyond. Written by Ben Barnes and Lisa Dickey. Albany, Tex.: Bright Sky Press, 2006

F 391.4 B37 A3 2006. PCL New Books Collection.
LAW F 391.4 B37 A3 2006.

Waggoner Carr, Not Guilty. Written by Waggoner Carr with Jack Keever. Austin, Texas: Shoal Creek Publishers, c. 1977.

KF 224 C37 S5 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
LAW KF 224 C37 S5 Law Library

Texas politics in my rearview mirror. Written by Waggoner Carr with Byron D. Varner. Plano, Tex.: Republic of Texas Press, c. 1993.

LAW F 391.2 C33 1993 Law Library
F 391.2 C33 1993 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 C33 1993 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.

The year they threw the rascals out. Written by Charles Deaton. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (1973).

F 391.2 D42 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 D42 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391.2 D42 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.2 D42 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391.2 D42 Public Affairs Library
LAW F 391.2 D42 Law Library

Sharpstown revisited: Frank Sharp and a tale of dirty politics in Texas. Written by Mickey Herskowitz. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, c1994.

F 391.2 H465 1994 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Texas under a cloud. Written by Sam Kinch, Jr., and Ben Procter. Austin, Jenkins Pub. Co., 1972.

F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 K5 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.2 K5 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391.2 K5 Public Affairs Library

Leaders for a greater Texas. Austin, Texas: c. 1965. Reprinted from the January 1965 issue of Texas Parade magazine and containing features on Carr, John Connally, Preston Smith, and Byron Tunnell.

- Q - T923.2764 T312L Center for American History. Use in library only.

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Documents:

Texas supplemental report on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and the serious wounding of Governor John B. Connally, November 22, 1963. Written by Attorney General Waggoner Carr. Austin, Texas: 1964

LAW E 842.9 T45 Law Library.
E 842.9 T45 PCL Stacks
TZZ 973.922 K383YT Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
T973.922 K383YT Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
T973.922 K383YT Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
T973.922 K383YT Center for American History Copy 3. Use in library only.

Excerpts from the Texas code of criminal procedure prepared for Texas justices of the peace. Written by Waggoner Carr, Attorney General of Texas. Austin, Texas?: s.n., 1966?

KFT 1775 A3352 1966 Center for American History. Use in library only.
KFT 1775 A3352 1966 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.

Recommended changes in the Texas code of criminal procedure. Written by Waggoner Carr. Austin: Attorney General's Office, 1966.

T343.731 T312YT Center for American History. Use in library only.
T343.731 T312YT Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.

A report on the activities of the Attorney General's Office 1963–1966. Written by Waggoner Carr, Attorney General Austin, Tex.: The Office?, 1966.

LAW KFT 1640 A85 Law Library

Summary of the revision of the Texas code of criminal procedure as effected by Senate bill 107, 59th Texas legislature. Written by Waggoner Carr, Attorney General of Texas. s.n., 1966?

T343.731 T312YT.S Center for American History. Use in library only.
T343.731 T312YT.S Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1775 A333 A2 1965 Law Library

McFarlane, William Doddridge, papers, 1919–1981. Center for American History.

Personal, general and subject correspondence, legal records, newspaper clippings, family album, music and scrapbooks; organized by form of material, arranged by subject and/or chronologically. McFarlane was a lawyer, partner in law firm of McFarlane and McFarlane; served in Texas House of Representatives (1923–1927); Texas Senate (1927–1939); as U.S. Representative (1933–1939), Special Assistant to the Attorney General (1939–1941), and Trial Attorney, Department of Justice (1941–1966). Summary: Papers concern the career of McFarlane, including scrapbooks documenting his term as United States congressman; legal and court records relating to the Indian Claims Commission; classified files concerning his political and civic activities in Graham, Texas from 1970 to 1980. Some of the collection includes material relevant to Waggoner Carr.

Vertical Files and Scrapbooks:

Scrapbook (1): Clippings 1952/59. Carr, Waggoner (Briscoe Center for American History)

A May 15, 1953, clipping, "Representative Carr Drops Out of Race for Speaker of the House," covers Carr's concession of the speaker's race to Jim Lindsey. Carr tells reports that he cannot divide his time between running a speaker's race and advancing several bills he supports. A January 10, 1955, Dallas Morning News story, "'No-New-Tax' Drive Hinted in West Texan's Remarks," quotes Carr as opposing any tax increases to fund new programs. Carr says a tax hike is unnecessary, citing a two-year-old study that claimed $28 million a year could be cut from the state budget without impairing state government services.

A pair of stories from June 1955 indicate that Carr already has locked up the House speaker election for 1957, with pledges from 95 incumbent members. A December 9, 1956, Dallas Morning News article, "Waggoner Carr: Legislator," provides a biographical sketch of the future speaker. An item from the January 6, 1957, Dallas Morning News notes that Carr, in an effort to make the business of the House more orderly, has moved House members' stenographers to the floor below the House chamber. He has also hired installers to provide private phones on each of the 150 members' desks. A January 6, 1957, Morning News clip, "Carr Says Texas Legislature Should Pass Money Bills First," quotes future speaker Carr as saying that appropriations should be tackled by the Legislature before the House takes up the matter of segregation.

A January 9, 1957, News article, "Speaker Vows He'll Disclose Any Legislative Misconduct," covers Carr's address to the Legislature after being sworn in. Carr pledges to repair the damage done to the reputation of the Legislature following recent scandals in the Texas insurance industry and the veterans' land office by quickly revealing any ethics violations he uncovers while speaker. He also announces plans to open up the Legislature to regular live radio broadcasts and says the Legislature will study live television broadcasts for the future.

Much of the coverage from March 1957 deals with the Legislature's passage of a record $2 billion budget for the next biennium. Several clippings pertain to a proposed ethics bill and a water bill connected to the state's recent serious droughts. An April 11, 1957, Austin American story, "House Advances Redistricting Bill," pertains to the occasional acrimony attending legislation that would redraw Texas Congressional districts for the first time since 1933.

An October 10, 1957, Dallas Morning News article, "Carr Says Cox Eyed Suicide" reports Carr's testimony in the Austin criminal trial of former State Rep. James E. Cox of Conroe, charged with accepting a $5,000 bribe from Dr. Howard Harmon, president of the Texas Naturopathic Physicians Association. Cox had testified that he had agreed to accept a payment from Harmon only to "trap" crooked lobbyists. Carr testified that Cox had broken down in tears when Carr told him that his arrest for bribery was imminent and Cox said that he might commit suicide.

An October 24, 1957, Dallas News article, "House Takes Stand Against Troop Use," notes the passage in the state House by a 112-24 margin of a resolution condemning the use by President Dwight Eisenhower of National Guard Troops to integrate Little Rock High School. Several stories from late 1957's special session pertain to segregation bills passed that would, among other things, give the governor the power to close schools when federal troops were sent to implement a desegregation order. Another bill would allow county judges to release the membership rosters of any group allegedly interfering with the function of a school such as the NAACP.

A March 6, 1958, story, "Carr Asks Adoption of Annual Sessions," quotes the House speaker as advocating adoption of a constitutional amendment that would allow the Legislature to convene in regular session every year, arguing that budgeting two years in advance is inefficient. Several stories from August 1958 center on Carr's speaker's race against Joe Burkett of Kerrville and Carr's announcement that he has sufficient backing to be re-elected speaker of the House. Press coverage of the race continues through January 1959.

Following Carr's victorious race for a second term as speaker, stories center on his opposition to a general sales tax, Carr's call for legislation to reduce state highway deaths and deep conflicts in the Legislature regarding tax remedies for the state's budget deficit. A December 3, 1959, Jacksonville Daily story, "Carr Announces Race for Texas Attorney General," quotes Carr as saying he decided to run for the statewide post after considering a race for governor.

Scrapbook (2): 5/30/60–8/6/66. Carr, Waggoner (Briscoe Center for American History)

The scrapbook contains only three clippings from May 1960 to November 1962. In a January 3, 1963, Dallas Morning News story, "Carr vows Pursuit of Estes, Oil Cases," the attorney general promises to prosecute those operating slanted oil wells, a major scandal in news accounts that year. A June 29, 1963, Houston Post article, "Atty Gen Carr Names First Negro Assistant," concerns the appointment of J. Phillip Crawford, a 1957 graduate of the University of Texas Law School, to the position of assistant attorney general in the state and county affairs section of the department. Several clippings deal with Carr's creation of a court of inquiry to investigate the assassination of President John Kennedy in Dallas November 22, 1963, which Carr says is designed to disprove any charge of "cover-up" by government officials. One story notes a delay in creating the inquiry board due to objections by Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, who is heading the Presidential inquiry into the Kennedy murder. A December 3, 1963, Dallas Morning News story, "Wade, Attorney Join Carr Probe," concern the naming of Dallas District Attorney Henry Wade and Houston attorney Leon Jaworski to his investigative body.

A June 14, 1963, Dallas Morning News article, "Carr Reports Murray Exceeded $1,700,000 With Oil, Gas Income," quotes Carr as noting that William J. Murray, Jr., received that income from oil and gas companies while serving on the Texas Railroad Commission, which Carr describes as a conflict of interest. A January 31, 1964, story, "Carr Seeks Second Term in Law Post," notes the attorney general's decision to seek re-election. Several clippings cover Carr's criticisms of Melvin Belli, the defense attorney for Jack Ruby who was convicted of murdering President Kennedy's accused assassin Harvey Oswald. In an outburst following the imposition of a death sentence on Ruby, Belli insulted the prosecutors, the jury, and the court. An October 6, 1964, Dallas Morning News story, "Carr Report Asks Better U.S.-State Law Liaison," covers the conclusion of Carr's supplemental report on the Kennedy assassination. Multiple clippings cover the release of the report and public reaction to it.

Several clippings from late 1965 and early 1966 concern Carr's entry into the Untied States Senate race and how he matches up with an early opponent, Fort Worth Congressman Jim Wright. Stories from March 1966 center on Carr's anger at United States Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach's order to the FBI to conduct "spot-checks" on voter registration in 43 Texas counties in order to catch civil rights violations. Carr, in response, asked Texas tax collectors to report any cases in which FBI agents hindered registration. Several articles, such as the June 21, 1966, Dallas Morning News story, "Threatened Revolt by Liberals Leaves Carr Race in Dilemma," note that the conservative Carr, who has not been close to labor unions and party liberals, now needs the help of those voters to beat Republican John Tower

Scrapbook (3): 8/10/66–5/10/68. Carr, Waggoner (Briscoe Center for American History)

Headlines from August center on Carr's request that Gov. John Connally create a blue-ribbon commission to study violent crime in Texas and President Lyndon Johnson's official endorsement of Carr in his senatorial campaign against Republican incumbent John Tower. Two features, "Couple Steps Upwards in Official Positions" from the August 14, 1966, Austin American-Statesman and "Mrs. Waggoner Carr—'Speaking of . . .'" focus on Carr's wife Ernestine.

Stories from the month also concern Carr's mixed success in attracting Mexican American and African American voters. A September 9, 1966 Dallas Times Herald story, "Carr Asks Tax Bill For Viet Nam War," covers Carr's statements that a federal tax should be levied to provide adequate funding to win the Vietnam War instead of having the United States government rely on what Carr terms "inflationary" deficit spending. A September 1, 1966, Dallas Morning News story, "Preachings That Starts Riots Threaten Nation, Carr Warns," details a Carr speech in which he blamed both advocates of black and white power for inflaming racial tensions. Other fall campaign stories concern Carr's difficulty in attracting liberal and labor support for his candidacy.

An October 11, 1966, Dallas Morning News story, "Carr Wooed Votes at '57 Race Rally," quotes Carr as claiming he attended a pro-segregation rally in Houston nine years earlier only to win over the votes of East Texas legislators in the hotly-contested 1957 Texas speaker of the House race. In a later Houston Post story, "Carr: Says Tower Is Making Racism Campaign Issue," Carr accuses his Republican opponent of creating racial animosity in the state by using photos from the 1957 segregationist rally in campaign materials and referring frequently to the incident. Several stories, placed out of order in the scrapbook, describe acrimony after the Senate campaign between Carr and liberal incumbent Sen. Ralph Yarborough and other party leaders.

A March 6, 1967, Dallas Times Herald article, "Carr Bares Attempt To Bar Texans on JFK Quiz Panel," covers Carr's revelation that Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, head of a federal commission examining the Kennedy assassination in Dallas, tried to prevent Texas state officials from working with the group on the investigation.

In other articles from the summer of 1967, Carr declares the he will sit out the 1968 campaign season, but hints he might consider a political race in 1970. Carr also complains that he has been made a whipping boy by PASSO, a Mexican-American civil rights organization, which claimed that its lack of support cost Carr the previous year's Senate race.

Several stories quote Carr as supporting Connally if the governor chooses to run for a fourth term and calling on Ralph Yarborough to resign from the Senate if he decides to enter the 1968 gubernatorial primary. Several articles from the spring of 1968 concern Carr's unsuccessful Democratic primary campaign for governor. Many other articles from the spring also refer to the continuing tension between Carr and the state's Mexican American community and to Carr's support for Lt. Gov. Preston Smith in his gubernatorial runoff race with Don Yarborough.

Scrapbook (4): To 1975 Carr, Waggoner (Briscoe Center for American History)

The first pages of the scrapbook contain random clippings from the 1950s through Carr's unsuccessful gubernatorial race in 1968. A June 17, 1968, Houston Chronicle article "Carr Bristles Over Longhairs in Speech Here," quotes Carr as asking young voters to "take the offensive against the long haired mad dogs and dirty rattlesnakes" of their generation and characterizing the Students for A Democratic Society, which recently met in Austin, as "admitted communists who are loyal to Russia, Red China and Fidel Castro—not the United States of America."

In a January 24, 1971, Dallas Morning News clipping, "Carr Blasts Critics: 'They Can Go to Hell,' He Suggests," the former state attorney general defends himself against calls for his resignation from Texas Tech University Board of Regents because of the stock fraud case filed against him by the Security and Exchange Commission. Several clippings from 1971 concern the scandal surrounding his financial dealings with banker Frank Sharp and SEC charges that Sharp financially rewarded Carr for favorable banking legislation. A September 11, 1971, Dallas Morning News story "Carr 'Shocked,'" describes Carr's reaction to a hearing in which Judge Sarah Hughes declares Carr guilty of SEC violations and slaps a permanent injunction against Carr, meaning he will be found guilty of contempt of court if he violates federal securities laws.

Several stories from November and December 1971 concern Carr's filing of an appeal of Hughes' decision and his lawsuit against Frank Sharp. Stories from April 1972 cover Carr's indictment on federal stock fraud charges. In several stories though 1973, Carr charges that the case is part of a Republican plot to destroy the Democratic Party in Texas. Clippings from 1974 cover the trial. An April 9, 1974, Dallas Times Herald story, "Carr Acquitted, Looks to the Future," details the end of Carr's legal ordeal. Several subsequent stories deal with Carr's reaction following the acquittal and his continued belief that the federal charges were part of a Nixon White House conspiracy.

Vertical File: (Clippings) Carr, Waggoner (Briscoe Center for American History)

Clippings are from 1974 to 1980. A December 23, 1975, Dallas Morning News story, "Ex-Texas Attorney General Disagrees With 4-Shot Theory," quotes Carr as disputing the idea that a fourth bullet was fired at President Kennedy in Dallas, but notes that the former attorney general has called for an investigation into why the FBI and other federal agencies failed to adequately protect the president. Other stories quote Carr as calling for an investigation into whether accused Kennedy's assassin Lee Harvey Oswald had any links to the FBI or CIA. Another round of stories from 1978 cite Carr's critical reaction to an FBI critique of Carr's 1964 investigation of the Kennedy assassination, which the memo described as "self-serving" and adding nothing useful to the inquiry. The memo was released in 1978.

The file also contains several stories on the release of Carr's book, "Waggoner Carr: Not Guilty," which provides the former attorney general's account of his stock fraud trial. A couple of clippings deal with Carr's leadership of a group called "Texas 13" which, inspired by the movement that passed Proposition 13 in California, seeks to put a limit on state taxes in Texas.

Vertical File: (Miscellaneous) Carr, Waggoner (Briscoe Center for American History)

The file contains two copies of the January 13, 1959, House Journal which reports Carr's election as Speaker of the House and contains his address to House members. The file also contains campaign materials from Carr's races for attorney general, and a newsletter from the Texas Liberal Democrats published during Carr's 1966 Senate campaign titled "The Question of Supporting Waggoner Carr for U.S. Senator." The newsletter brings up Carr's past support for segregation, and his support as a House member of a bill banning allegedly subversive books from school and university libraries.

Audiotapes:

David Carr Interview, 2004.

Interview with Dr. David Carr, the son of Waggoner Carr, conducted at his Austin home by Dr. Michael Phillips of the Center for American History's Texas House Speakers Oral History Project. Carr describes Waggoner Carr's family background, his career as speaker, his relationship with his wife Ernestine, his tenure as attorney general, and his experiences investigating the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in Dallas in 1963. Dr. Carr also describes his father's relationship with men like Gov. John Connally and his responses to protests by PASSO, a Mexican American group protesting low agricultural wages and poor working conditions in the Rio Grande Valley. The last part of the interview covers Carr's personal pain while successfully fending off corruption charges related to the Sharpstown Stock Fraud Scandal.

AUDIO Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Virginia Carter Interview, 2004.

Interview with Virginia Carter, the sister of Waggoner Carr, conducted for the Center for American History by Dr. Michael Phillips of the Texas House Speakers Oral History Project. Carter describes her relationship with Waggoner Carr and her experiences growing up in West Texas and participating in her brother's campaigns for the House of Representatives, state attorney general, governor, and senator. She also covers her brother's reactions to the assassination of President John Kennedy and his Sharpstown trials.

AUDIO Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Prints and Photographs Collection: (Briscoe Center for American History)

An official portrait from Carr's speakership.

Top


JAMES A. "JIMMY" TURMAN
(1927–)
64th Speaker
(1961–1963)

Presided over

The 57th Legislature's regular session, January 10 to May 29, 1961; the 57th Legislature's first called session, July 10 to August 8, 1961; the 57th Legislature's second called session, August 10 to August 14, 1961; and the 57th Legislature's third called session, January 3 to February 1, 1962.

Born November 29, 1927, in the small East Texas town of Leonard in Fannin County, James A. "Jimmy" Turman grew up in Gober before his appointment as teacher and principal at the Wolfe City Elementary/Junior High School at the age of 19. He became a junior high principal in Paris at 24. Turman did this while earning a master's degree at East Texas State Teacher's College. Turman's career as an educator was interrupted by a stint in the Navy at the time of the Korean War. Returning home, he won election as a state representative from Gober in 1954.

While serving as representative, Turman in 1957 earned a doctorate at the University of Texas at Austin in educational administration and psychology. As a legislator, he led the fight to improve funding for state mental hospitals and sought higher pay for teachers.

He was elected speaker in 1961, the first speaker ever to hold a doctoral degree. During his speakership, the House Chamber was modernized, with the installation of air conditioning. His term as speaker marked the first time many rank-and-file members received private offices in the crowded Capitol. That session also saw the passage of the state's first general sales tax, approved in the House over Turman's objections. Turman successfully backed a law establishing a State Employees Classification System and guided through the House the "University of Houston" bill that provided state support for that institution through senior and graduate level classes.

Turman led four opponents in the 1962 primary for lieutenant governor, but narrowly lost in the runoff to a future governor, Preston Smith. Turman moved on the following year to become associate commissioner in the United States Office of Education, later serving on the Education Commission of the United States under President Lyndon Johnson and as director of the President's National Advisory Council on Extension and Continuing Education under Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Dr. Turman then founded two national education management consulting firms in Alexandria, Virginia before moving back to Texas.

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, after a large migration of Vietnamese and Cambodians arrived in Texas as war refugees, Dr. Turman became the Department of Health and Human Services regional director of Refugee Resettlement in Dallas. He then returned to state government, working as a research analyst for the state comptroller's office. He retired from public service in 1990 and organized Chaparral Mining Corporation, where he was chief executive officer and the first chair of the board. He currently resides in Austin with his wife Joanie.

University Materials Related to Speaker Turman

Books:

Barn Building/Barn Burning: Tales of a Political Life From LBJ Through George W. Bush and Beyond. Written by Ben Barnes and Lisa Dickey. Albany, Tex.: Bright Sky Press, 2006

F 391.4 B37 A3 2006. PCL New Books Collection.
LAW F 391.4 B37 A3 2006.

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Thesis:

Parents' attitudes and beliefs on issues pertaining to methods of reporting pupil progress to parents. Written by James Arthur Turman. Austin, Tex.: University of Texas at Austin, 1957. Thesis (D. Ed.) –University of Texas at Austin, 1957.

One of four studies on pupil progress reports sponsored by the Texas Congress of Parents and Teachers.

TD1957 T848 PCL Stacks Copy 2.
TD1957 T848 Request at Periodicals Desk PCL Level 2 Copy 1. Use in library only. Item in library storage facility.

Vertical File: Turman, James A. (Briscoe Center for American History)

Clippings start with coverage of his career as a member of the House. One story, "Teachers and Judges Seek Supporters in Budget Battle," describes Turman as a sponsor of a bill that would raise teachers' salaries. Several stories detail the close race between Turman and Rep. Wade Spillman, preferred by House conservatives, for the speaker's post. A pair of stories cover his election as speaker in 1961, one noting that Turman follows in the footsteps of another Fannin County man, Sam Rayburn, in the office. A January 22, 1961, Dallas Morning News story, "Speaker Turman Believes in Avoiding Either Extreme," describes him as a moderate with some liberal backing in contrast to the conservative governor Price Daniel and the even more conservative Lt. Gov. Ben Ramsey. A pair of feature stories, one from the January 29, 1961, Austin American-Statesman and another from the April 30, 1962 Houston Post focus on Ira Nell Turman, the speaker's first wife. The stories center on the speaker's residence at the Capitol, Ira Turman's recipes and the Turmans' family life.

The folder contains the cover of the March–April 1961 issue of The Texas Builder, which features a picture of Turman wielding the speaker's gavel. Several clippings describe Turman's efforts to secure a pay raise for teachers. An April 27, 1961 Dallas Morning News story, "Dallas' Rep. Jones Criticizes Turman," quotes House member Bill Jones as charging Turman of using unscrupulous, highhanded methods in securing passage of two-year spending bill. Jones claimed that Turman did not give him an opportunity to offer amendments and that the appropriations bill was passed with members barely having time to read it. Rep. DeWitt Hale defends Turman, saying there has never been a more thoroughly debated spending bill.

A May 4, 1961, Dallas Morning News article, "Rep. Turman Suggests Tax on Beer, Pop," quotes Turman as estimating that a one-penny tax per bottle of beer would bring in $20 million to $30 million a year to the state, while the same tax on a bottle of soft drink would bring in another $15 million. Turman is also quoted as suggesting that a tax on the chemical industry and on public utilities might be additional alternatives to imposing a retail sales or personal income tax.

A February 2, 1962, Houston Post article, "House Speaker Turman to Run for Lt. Governor," quotes Turman as saying that his experience as speaker qualifies him to preside over the state Senate. Several clippings describe charges by opponents to Turman's race for lieutenant governor that a state employee was used as a Turman baby sitter, that Turman pocketed unused travel funds, and that he accepted a yacht ride from a lobbyist. Turman denied the charges, noting that the so-called "baby sitter" was a nurse hired to serve the entire Legislature and Capitol staff and that Speaker Jim Lindsey had used this employee in a similar capacity.

Several clips cover Turman's post-speakership career, including his consideration for the presidency of Southwest Texas State College and his appointment as assistant commissioner for field services for the Office of Education, Department of Health Education and Welfare. An April 2, 1978 Dallas Morning News clipping, "Ex-speaker joins Mattox" describes Turman's appointment as an administrative assistant to Rep. Jim Mattox, a Democratic Congressman from Dallas.

Audiotape:

James A. "Jimmy" Turman Interview, 2004.

Interview with Dr. James A. "Jimmy" Turman conducted at his Corpus Christi home by Dr. Michael Phillips of the Center for American History's Texas House Speakers Oral History Project. Turman discusses his childhood in the East Texas town of Gober, the racial politics of East Texas from the 1940s to the 1960s, his career as a teacher and principal in Texas and his military experiences in the early 1950s. Turman outlines his time as a House member, provides his evaluation of Waggoner Carr as House speaker, and his role in the creation of a sales tax in Texas. Turman also relates his role in the creation of the University of Houston and his feelings about his unsuccessful run for lieutenant governor in 1962. The interview also covers his work for the Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon administrations and his tenure as Department of Health and Human Services regional director for Refugee Resettlement in Dallas in the late 1970s.

AUDIO Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Prints and Photographs Collection: (Briscoe Center for American History)

An official portrait of Turman from his speakership.

Top


BYRON TUNNELL
(1925–2000)
65th Speaker
(1963–1965)

Presided over

The 58th Legislature's regular session, January 8 to May 24, 1963.

Born on March 7, 1925, in the East Texas city of Tyler, Byron M. Tunnell graduated from Tyler High School in 1943 and enlisted in the United States Navy Air Corps where he became a tail gunner in the European theater of World War II. Leaving the Navy in 1946, Tunnell attended Tyler Junior College and then Baylor University in Waco, where he received a law degree in 1952. Returning to Tyler, he rose to the position of Smith County assistant district attorney, earning a reputation as a formidable trial lawyer who argued a case before the United States Supreme Court.

Tunnell first won election to the Texas House of Representatives in 1956 as a Democrat representing Smith and Gregg counties, and was re-elected in 1958, 1960, and 1962. In his last session in the House, he was selected as speaker.

During his speakership, the Legislature created the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and transferred control of what would become the Padre Island National Seashore to the federal government. While he presided over the House, the Legislature also created the Texas Tourist Development Board and passed the Texas Regulatory Loan Act, popularly known as the "loan shark bill."

Tunnell also instituted rules aimed at making the sometimes-raucous House a more dignified deliberative body. The new rules limited access to the House floor during a session to representatives, senators, credentialed press members, and certain employees of the Legislature. Men admitted to the floor of the House were required to wear suits and ties, while food and beverages on the House floor were prohibited whether or not the House was in session. Tunnell also provided for members a House lounge and a chapel.

Tunnell won re-election to the House in 1964 and intended to seek reelection as speaker, but Gov. John Connally appointed him to fill a vacancy on the Texas Railroad Commission. Re-elected to the commission in his own right in 1966 and 1972, he rose to the position of commission chairman. A year later in 1973, Tenneco Inc., a Houston oil and gas corporation, hired him as vice president and lobbyist. He retired in 1990.

Governor George W. Bush in 1995 named Tunnell to the Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse. He died on March 7, 2000, in Emerald Bay on Lake Palestine.

University Materials Related to Speaker Tunnell

Books:

Barn Building/Barn Burning: Tales of a Political Life From LBJ Through George W. Bush and Beyond. Written by Ben Barnes and Lisa Dickey. Albany, Tex.: Bright Sky Press, 2006.

F 391.4 B37 A3 2006. PCL New Books Collection.
LAW F 391.4 B37 A3 2006.

The men who lead Texas. Austin, Tex: 1963.

Notes: Reprinted from the January 1965 issue of Texas Parade magazine and containing features on Tunnell, Waggoner Carr, John Connally, and Preston Smith.

- Q - T923.2764 T312M Center for American History. Use in library only.

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Vertical File: Tunnell, Byron (Briscoe Center for American History)

The file contains a copy of the January 1965 Texas Parade article on Byron Tunnell, with color photographs. Tunnell's rise in the House is noted in a September 9, 1963, Austin American clipping, "Tunnell Voted Speaker Post," and a Dallas Morning News story from the same date, "Tunnell Coasts in As House Speaker."

In a July 23, 1964, Houston Post story, "Tunnell Says Harris Due 3rd Seat in House," Tunnell advocates expanding Houston's representation in the United State Congress by one seat and in the Texas House by seven seats. Tunnell's appointment by Gov. John Connally to the state Railroad Commission is noted in the January 9, 1965, Austin American-Statesman story, "Tunnell Named RR Commissioner" and a January 8 Dallas Morning News story, "Tunnell Appointed Rail Commissioner."

Subsequent stories note the oil industry's support for his appointment. Several stories quote Tunnell as blaming government regulations for the early 1970s energy crisis. The October 9, 1988, Austin American-Statesman article, "Wife of former Texas speaker of House dies," notes the passing of Tunnell's first wife, Bette, in Houston. A March 8, 2000, Statesman story, "Former Texas House speaker recalled as eloquent orator," notes Tunnell's death and provides a biographical sketch.

Audiotape:

Jan Tunnell Interview, 2004.

Interview with Jan Tunnell conducted at the Center for American History in Austin by Dr. Michael Phillips of the Texas House Speakers Oral History Project. Tunnell describes her husband's family background and his experiences as a child in Tyler, the circumstances under which she met the former House speaker, his memories of his speakership, his political philosophy, and his post-political career.

AUDIO Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Prints and Photographs Collection: (Briscoe Center for American History)

An official portrait of Tunnell from his speakership.

Top


BEN BARNES
(1938–)
66th Speaker
(1965–1969)

Presided over

The 59th Legislature's regular session January 12 to May 31, 1965; and the 59th Legislature's first called session February 14 to February 23, 1966.

The 60th Legislature's regular session January 10 to May 29, 1967; and the 60th Legislature's first called session June 4 to July 3, 1968.

Born in 1938 in Gorman, Ben Frank Barnes graduated from the University of Texas at Austin law school. While still a UT student, Barnes worked at the state Health Department. He later said he became fascinated with politics after he discovered the misappropriation of funds at this department and was able to instigate a state investigation.

Barnes defeated a heavily favored opponent to win election in 1961 to the Texas House, where he represented the Comanche County town of De Leon. Barnes quickly assumed a leadership position, chairing the House Rules Committee and serving as vice chair of the Banks and Banking Committee. Barnes helped lead opponents to Gov. Price Daniel's and Speaker Jimmy Turman's tax plans and strongly supported passage of the state's first sales tax. Barnes also served as liaison between House Speaker Byron Tunnell and Gov. John Connally.

In 1965, Barnes backed Tunnell in an anticipated run for a second term as speaker. Just before the 59th regular Legislative session, however, Gov. Connally appointed Tunnell to serve on the Texas Railroad Commission. Barnes, who had planned to run for speaker in 1967, instead won the office two years earlier, thus becoming at 26 the youngest speaker of the Texas House in 95 years. (The youngest, Ira Hobart Evans, served as speaker at age 25.) Barnes won a second term as speaker in 1967, before his election as lieutenant governor in 1968.

During his speakership, Barnes placed a high priority on the state's colleges and universities, with financial support for these institutions rising by 300 percent. Furthermore, he helped establish the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Under Barnes, salaries increased for university professors, the University of Houston merged with the state university system, and Angelo State College and Pan American College turned into four-year institutions.

Furthermore, Barnes won passage of a minimum wage standard for farm workers, played a key role in winning approval for clean air and water legislation, and successfully fought for a bill creating the Texas Rehabilitation Commission. The political future seemed limitless for Barnes, who enjoyed the support of Connally and President Lyndon Johnson who, after leaving the White House, predicted that his young protégé would one day claim the presidency.

Barnes won the lieutenant governor's post, a position he held from 1969 to 1973. Barnes served on the Executive Committee of the National Conference of Lieutenant Governors and many political observers believed he was the most powerful man in state government during that tenure. Barnes again thought of higher office.

The political fallout from the Sharpstown Scandal, however, wounded Barnes, who lost the 1972 Democratic primary race for governor. Even though Barnes was not directly involved in the scandal involving bribes from banker Frank Sharp, he was saddled with anti-incumbent voter backlash. This defeat prompted Barnes' unexpectedly early retirement from public office.

The collapse of oil prices in the mid- to late-1980s and its effect on the Texas real estate market forced Barnes to file for bankruptcy following the financial collapse of the Barnes/Connally Partnership, a real estate firm. The former politician, however, rebuilt his business fortune. Barnes received a Distinguished Alumnus Award from the University of Texas in 1995 and an endowed fellowship was created in his name at UT's Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs. A Democratic Party activist, he now runs Entrecorp, an Austin firm that advises businesses on government relations.

University Materials Related to Speaker Barnes

Books:

Barn Building/Barn Burning: Tales of a Political Life From LBJ Through George W. Bush and Beyond. Written by Ben Barnes and Lisa Dickey. Albany, Tex.: Bright Sky Press, 2006

F 391.4 B37 A3 2006. PCL New Books Collection.
LAW F 391.4 B37 A3 2006.

Choice of Texans: leaders in the statehouse. Austin, Tex.: 1969.

Reprinted from Texas Parade, January 1969. Includes features on Barnes, Preston Smith, Crawford C. Martin and Gus Mutscher.

- Q - T923.2764 T312C Center for American History. Use in library only.

The year they threw the rascals out. Written by Charles Deaton. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (1973).

F 391.2 D42 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 D42 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391.2 D42 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.2 D42 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391.2 D42 Public Affairs Library
LAW F 391.2 D42 Law Library

Sharpstown revisited: Frank Sharp and a tale of dirty politics in Texas. Written by Mickey Herskowitz. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, c1994.

F 391.2 H465 1994 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Texas under a cloud. Written by Sam Kinch, Jr., and Ben Procter. Austin, Jenkins Pub. Co., 1972.

F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks Copy 2.
F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks.
F 391.2 K5 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.2 K5 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391.2 K5 Public Affairs Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Documents:

Lieutenant Governor Ben Barnes welcomes Texans to the Texas Senate. Austin, Texas: Office of the Lieutenant Governor, 1969 or 70.

CAH (TXC-ZZ) copy is from the Yarborough (Ralph Webster) Library.
JK 4876 T492 1969 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4876 T492 1969 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4876 T492 1969 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

The Citizens of Austin request the honor of your presence at the inaugural festivities honoring Governor Preston Smith and Lieutenant Governor Ben Barnes: Tuesday, the twenty-first of January nineteen hundred sixty-nine. Austin, Tex.: Austin Inaugural Committee, 1969?.

F 391 S597 C538 1969 Center for American History. Use in library only.

Photographs:

Ben Barnes, 9/71-5/72. Photographs by John R. Van Beekum. S.l.: s.n., 1972.

F 391.4 B37 V36 1972 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.4 B37 V36 1972 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Scrapbooks and Vertical Files:

Scrapbook (1): 12/15/63–9/17/67. Barnes, Ben (Briscoe Center for American History)

The scrapbook contains a small number of stories from 1963 and 1964. Clippings from December 1963 detail Barnes' support from Byron Tunnell, Gov. John Connally, and President Lyndon Johnson. A January 11, 1965, Dallas Times Herald article, "Barnes Story of Success From Horatio Alger Mold," tells how Barnes' support of Byron Tunnell in his 1961 race for House speaker rocketed the freshman state representative to a position where he could become speaker himself four years later. The January 11, 1965, Houston Post article, "Barnes Claims 131 Votes for Speaker," announces his victory in the House leadership race. Stories from Barnes' first session as speaker through June of 1965 focused on his swift naming of committees and his ability to smoothly pass the governor's legislation through the House.

A pair of stories, "Barnes for Ending At-Large Voting" from the July 29, 1965, Houston Post and "Barnes Backs Legislators' 4-year Terms," from the October 8, 1965, Dallas Times Herald describes changes in the state Constitution and congressional districting favored by the speaker. Barnes is quoted as saying that the state's congressional delegation would be more representative if large cities elected representatives from single districts rather than voting county-wide as happened in Dallas and Harris County. He does not specifically say that would improve the representation of racial minorities, but the Houston Post speculates that this would be a consequence of such a change. Barnes is also quoted as backing four-year terms for statewide officials, such as the governor, claiming this would add stability to state government.

Other articles quote Barnes as saying the state needs to spend more money on vocational and technical training, as well as health programs, to address the needs of the 46 percent of Texas' population that does not graduate from high school. Other clippings cite his push for a state House resolution supporting President Lyndon Johnson's policies in Vietnam and his backing of Waggoner Carr's Senate campaign against John Tower in 1968. A September 22, 1966, Dallas Times Herald article, "Ben Barnes Calls for Kindergarten, Driver Education," quotes Barnes as saying that a state-supported kindergarten program would be of particular benefit to lower-income Texans.

An emerging political rivalry between Barnes and Lt. Gov. Preston Smith, both thought to be likely future candidates for governor, emerges in the November 16, 1966, Dallas Morning News story, "Smith-Barnes Feud Snags Budget Task," which notes that because of disagreements between the two there might not be a Legislative Budget Board recommendation for the first time in 16 years.

In several articles, Barnes says he is in favor of changes to the state Constitution to allow cities to collect sales taxes. Barnes is also quoted as saying that Gov. John Connally's proposal for a convention to write a new state Constitution should be studied by the Legislature. Barnes' reelection as speaker is covered in the January 11, 1967, Dallas Morning News article, "Barnes, Unanimously Elected to 2d Term as House Speaker, Urges Dedication, Work."

Several articles quote Barnes as advocating changes in House rules to limit conference committees to adjusting differences between House and Senate versions of the same bill; to provide joint hearings on appropriations requests by the House Appropriations and the Senate Finance committees; to reduce the number of House committees; and to establish a priority system for bills with separate calendars set up for each category of legislation.

Several articles from early 1967 speculate on whether Barnes will support legislation legalizing liquor-by-the-drink. Articles from the summer of 1967 ponder whether Barnes will run for lieutenant governor if the incumbent, Preston Smith, makes a gubernatorial race. In an August 17, 1967, Dallas Times Herald article, "Black Power Doomed," Barnes tells a meeting of African American Masons that while African Americans still have distance to cover before they achieve full equality of opportunity, they have still come a far distance since the start of the Civil Rights movement. Black Power, he says, is the slogan of the desperate and blacks have in part created their own problems because affluent African Americans have not provided enough help to their peers.

Scrapbook (2): 9/27/67–12/26/68. Barnes, Ben (Briscoe Center for American History)

Barnes calls for the establishment of a state police academy in the October 5, 1967, Dallas Morning News article "Barnes Labels State 'U.S. Crime Capital.''' After months of speculation, Barnes confirms he intends to run for lieutenant governor, as announced in the October 11, 1967, Dallas Times Herald article, "Barnes Makes It Official." The Dallas Morning News on February 18, 1968 and the Houston Chronicle on April 7 endorse Barnes.

In several clips, Barnes says he will appoint a special commission with subpoena powers to study inconsistency and weakness in enforcement of the state's liquor laws. Barnes calls for the state Legislature to take up the issue of abortion law reform in its next session in the July 31, 1968, Houston Post article, "Barnes supports abortion debate." Several articles from the summer concern Barnes' election as president of the National Legislative Conference.

Articles in September quote Barnes as warning Vice President and Democratic presidential nominee Hubert Humphrey that his candidacy is in trouble in Texas. Barnes says in one article that the candidacy of Southern third party candidate Gov. George Wallace of Alabama poses particular problems for Humphrey. The September 20, 1968, Dallas Times Herald article, "Barnes Classes Chicago Trouble As Insurrection," notes that Barnes, a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in Chicago that year, did not see protests outside the convention as legitimate exercises in dissent but as lawlessness. He calls for stricter laws against mob violence in Texas. Remaining articles in the scrapbook, through December 1968, cover his victory in the lieutenant governor's race and his anticipated conflict with newly elected Gov. Preston Smith.

Scrapbook (3): 1/5/69–7/16/69. Barnes, Ben (Briscoe Center for American History)

Early clippings in the scrapbook cover the Barnes' move from the speaker's residence to the lieutenant governor's apartment on the other side of the Capitol. Other stories speculate about the impact of Barnes, more moderate than his strongly conservative predecessors such as lieutenant governors Preston Smith and Ben Ramsey, on the state Senate. Other stories carry predictions that Barnes might become the reigning power in the state Democratic Party now that Lyndon Johnson is leaving the White House.

Stories after the Legislature opens its regular session focus on Barnes' forecast that the Senate will pass a minimum wage law, would submit to the voters a constitutional amendment legalizing liquor-by-the-drink and will begin studying revising or replacing the state Constitution. In several stories, Barnes predicts a "rough" session.

A March 15, 1969, Dallas Morning News article, "Barnes Indicates 'Honeymoon Over,'" quotes the lieutenant governor as criticizing both Gov. Preston Smith and House Speaker Gus Mutscher for bottling up legislation. Barnes complains that Smith has failed to make funding proposals for his requested expenditures and that his proposal for spending on higher education is $40 million to $50 million less than is needed. He also charges that, although the House must originate all tax bills, Mutscher and his committee chairs have not yet scheduled a hearing on a single tax bill, and that the House Appropriations Committee had yet to approve an appropriations bill. In several stories Barnes also promotes the idea of a one-year state budget instead of the biennial budgets the state government has operated on since adoption of the current constitution. A one-year appropriation is passed by the Legislature, but vetoed by Gov. Smith.

Barnes also squabbles with Smith over the governor's request to dismiss several end-of-term appointments made by departing Gov. John Connally and already approved by the Senate. Several articles, noting Barnes' success in rapidly shepherding through the Senate a large appropriations bill and a liquor-by-the-drink Constitutional amendment, describe him as a political force to be reckoned with.

An April 17, 1969, Dallas Times Herald article, "Connally Promotes Barnes," covers a meeting former Texas Gov. John Connally has with prominent Dallas businessmen for the purpose of supporting Barnes' political career. A May 14, 1969, Wall Street Journal article, "Texans Who Supported John Rally 'Round Lt. Gov. Ben Barnes, 31," calls Barnes Johnson's "heir apparent," and reports that both liberals and conservatives support him. Other stories deal with the need for a called session to pass a state budget and the role that Barnes will play in shaping state tax policy.

Scrapbook (4): 3/69–3/70. Barnes, Ben (Briscoe Center for American History)

A September 7, 1969, Dallas Morning News article, "Career of Barnes At Critical Point," notes that Barnes' mentors, Byron Tunnell, Lyndon Johnson, John Connally and Austin attorney Frank Erwin (who advised Barnes during his speakership) are all out of politics and the young Barnes, for the first time, has to stand alone. The Legislature is gridlocked over the budget and polls show voter doubts about Barnes for the first time. The article notes his ties to several business interests and speculates that Barnes's attention is diverted towards higher office. Subsequent articles in late 1969 consider rumors that Barnes might run for governor against incumbent Preston Smith in 1970 or seek the seat of liberal Texas Sen. Ralph Yarborough. A November 19, 1969, Houston Chronicle story, "Planning To Seek Reelection," covers Barnes' decision to run for another terms as lieutenant governor. Several subsequent stories speculate that Barnes may have won either the gubernatorial or the Senate race but that the campaign would have left a shattered state Democratic Party.

"New Dimensions: Lieutenant Governor's Apartment," from the January 11, 1970, Austin American-Statesman, describes in detail Barnes' official residence. "Barnes' Wife Seeks Divorce," from the January 15, 1970, Statesman reports that "incompatibility" has been cited as the reason for the divorce, which Martha Barnes seeks "without regard to fault." Later stories speculate that Barnes may have decided to not run for the Senate or for governor because of his marital difficulties.

Scrapbook (5): 7/69–7/71. Barnes, Ben (Briscoe Center for American History)

Articles from July and August 1970 center on speculation that Barnes might soon become a national power in the Democratic Party with wide coverage of former President Lyndon Johnson's remarks that Barnes would rise to the White House. A November 4, 1970, Dallas Times Herald article, "Incumbent Barnes Defeats Fullerton," covers Barnes' re-election as lieutenant governor.

Articles from late November cover a telephone conversation between Barnes and Democratic presidential frontrunner for the 1972 race, Sen. Ed Muskie of Maine, conferring on how to strengthen the Democratic Party's appeal in the South before the next White House campaign. Several articles speculate that Barnes will run for the Senate in 1972. Newspapers also cover Barnes decision to not announce his political plans before the state Senate opens its session in January 1971, which Barnes said would be a distraction from the legislative business at hand.

A May 9, 1971, Fort Worth Star-Telegram article, "Jackson, Barnes Talk '72," concerns a meeting between Barnes and Sen. Henry "Scoop" Jackson," another presumed contender for the 1972 Democratic Presidential nomination. Numerous stories from June 1971 cover Barnes' announcement that he intends to run for governor the next year. The last clipping in the scrapbook, a July 21, 1971, Dallas Times Herald story "Barnes-Heatley Stock Link Told," reveals that Barnes "introduced" State Rep. W.S. Heatley to Ling & Co., Inc., the financial firm which handled the National Bankers Life Insurance stock sales to various state officials, a matter central to the emerging Sharptown scandal.

Scrapbook (6): 7/71–5/72. Barnes, Ben (Briscoe Center for American History)

Stories in late August 1971 cover Barnes' claim that the SEC was out to "get him," asking every witness in its investigation about Sharpstown questions about the lieutenant governor. Several stories the same month cover Barnes marriage to Austin widow Nancy Sayers. In August 1971 Barnes angrily denies charges by Frank Sharp, the center of the Sharpstown investigation, that Barnes was financially rewarded for securing passage of controversial banking bills in 1969. Barnes, like former Speaker and state Attorney General Waggoner Carr, charges that the Nixon administration is behind the allegations and is attempting to damage the Texas Democratic Party before the 1972 elections.

An October 1, 1971, Austin American-Statesman article, "Gus' Actions Surprising To Barnes," quotes the lieutenant governor as saying he is puzzled by the decision of House Speaker Gus Mutscher to not resign after being indicted in the Sharptown scandal and to take his seat on the Texas Redistricting Board. Stories throughout the fall to early 1972 report on Barnes' gubernatorial campaign, his release of financial documents, and his attempts to distance himself from the financial scandals enveloping the state Capitol. Barnes calls for new states ethics laws and, in a March 17, 1972 Houston Chronicle article, "Barnes Calls For New State Constitution," calls for Texas to have a cabinet form of government, annual legislative sessions, four-year terms for the governor and lieutenant governor and higher pay for legislators and the lieutenant governor. He also called for a financial disclosure act that would apply to both officeholders and candidates.

Articles in April indicate a tightening race between Barnes and Uvalde rancher Dolph Briscoe. Stories in early May cover Barnes' third place finish in the gubernatorial primary behind Briscoe and Frances Farenthold. Briscoe describes himself as lucky and says he plans to enter the construction business.

Vertical File: (1) (Clippings). Barnes, Ben (Briscoe Center for American History)

Clippings focus on Barnes' life after politics, though the earliest stories start with his term as lieutenant governor and extend into 2001. Many stories deal with whether Barnes misses politics. He claims he does not and in several stories he denies having interest in ever becoming a candidate again. A September 12, 1971 Austin American-Statesman story, "Thesis Says Smith 'Lonely' In Latter Connally Years," summarized a University of Texas master's thesis written by a former staffer for former Lt. Gov. and Gov. Preston Smith, Austin public relations specialist Jerry Conn. Conn said that Smith grew increasingly isolated and frustrated towards the end of John Connally's term as governor and felt completely overshadowed by Connally and Ben Barnes. Smith suffered from being a less colorful personality than Barnes or Connally and having a less affable relationship with the Capitol press corps.

A May 17, 1972, Austin Citizen story, "The rise and fall of Ben Barnes," provides a biographical sketch. The reporter also considers Barnes' political options—running for governor again in 1974, running for the Senate in 1976 against fellow conservative Lloyd Bentsen, like himself a friend of Lyndon Johnson and John Connally, or running for the United States House against Omar Burleson. The story implies that politics is still in Barnes' blood. A July 15, 1973, Houston Chronicle story, "Mrs. Ben Barnes: A Small-Town Housewife," details Nancy Barnes' family life now that the former lieutenant governor is a private building contractor in the town of Brownwood. The story describes her as having been deeply involved in her husband's political campaigns but adjusting well to their new status.

A November 18, 1973, San Angelo Standard Times article, "Ben Barnes is Still Negative," quotes Barnes as dismissing rumors that he would run for the Texas Railroad Commission or for the U.S. House. In this story, Barnes repeats his charge that rumors during his gubernatorial race in 1971 that he would be linked to the Sharpstown scandal were part of a Republican plot to destroy the Texas Democratic Party. These charges surface again in a November 19, 1973, Fort Worth Star-Telegram story, "Barnes Says He Was GOP Victim," in which he charges that the Texas Republican Party Chairman encouraged Republican President Richard Nixon's Justice Department to link Barnes to the Sharpstown scandal. Barnes also says that he would support a 1976 presidential race by John Connally even if the former Democratic governor runs as a Republican. Barnes, however, says that he will remain a Democrat.

A feature story with several color photographs from the July 27, 1975, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, "House designer sold on job," describes in rich detail the Barnes home in Brownwood which, a cutline says, is filled with "mementos of [Barnes'] career as speaker of the House and lieutenant governor." Several stories deal with Barnes' filing a $20 million libel claim against the Dallas Morning News for a series of stories in late June 1976 in which it charged that bank examiners were investigating illegalities in a series of bank takeovers along the Mexican border. The stories named a financial group that included Barnes and charged that conspirators had "kited funds" and looted assets while associating with organized crime figures. A September 12, 1981, Fort Worth Star-Telegram story, "Barnes Settles 1976 libel suit," reports that Barnes and the News agreed to dismiss the suit.

A December 11, 1987, Austin American-Statesman article, "Barnes files for personal bankruptcy," describes the financial collapse of the Barnes/Connally Partnership, a real estate firm, that fell during the Texas oil and real estate bust of the mid to late 1980s. An April 17, 1988, Fort Worth Star-Telegram story, "The Prince of the Peanut Patch," describes the ups-and-downs of Barnes' life, from the time he was considered a presidential prospect to current times when, the story notes, he is "50, bankrupt and divorced . . ." The story provides a detailed history of the Sharpstown scandal and also the conspiracy theory regarding the controversy promulgated by Barnes and others.

A January 10, 1997, Austin American-Statesman story, "Barnes out as GTECH lobbyist," reports that Barnes, who had been the legislative point man for the firm that runs the Texas state lottery, would step aside from that role though he would remain a consultant with that firm. A controversy erupted because of disclosures that Barnes had given a gift in 1993 of a vase worth between $100 to $150 to Gov. Ann Richards in spite of company's state contract which prohibits such gift-giving to state officials.

The controversy came up as Barnes' name was mentioned in the trial of another GTECH official in New Jersey who was accused of participating in a kickback scheme. A federal judge later ordered that a prosecutor's report suggesting Barnes was involved in kickbacks be sealed until the charges could be adequately investigated. Another scandal developed that month when the Statesman reported that Barnes and his wife Melanie gave $1,000 each to the re-election campaign of Travis County District Attorney Ronnie Earle, which could be a violation of GTECH's state contract. A February 13, 1997, Austin American-Statesman article, "Barnes, GTECH end his consulting work on the lottery," reveals that Barnes has severed all ties to the company because of the controversy surrounding his role as a lobbyist.

In spite of the many controversies in his past, a March 21, 2001, Dave McNeely column, "Barnes doesn't see Washington on his horizon," notes a rumor that Barnes would seek to fill Phil Gramm's Senate seat. Gramm, the Republican incumbent, retired from the Senate in January 2003. Barnes squelches the rumor, saying he has no interest in running for office. He ascribes the spread of the rumor to a speech he made in April 2001 at the LBJ library in which he said that Texas needed bolder leadership and needed to increase taxes in order to adequately fund many programs.

Vertical File: (2) (Miscellaneous). Barnes, Ben (Briscoe Center for American History)

This file contains special issues of newspapers, magazine sections, and campaign materials related to Ben Barnes. The files contains two copies of an April 15, 1967, issue of The Comanche Chief that is devoted to coverage of "Ben Barnes Day" and includes numerous photographs of the Texas House speaker, including a baby photograph and his senior picture from De Leon High School.

A cover story from the May 30, 1976, Dallas Morning News Scene magazine, "Ben Barnes–Businessman," concerns his rise in the Texas real estate business but notes that political speculation still swirls around the former lieutenant governor. A July 21, 1972, feature from the Texas Observer quotes Barnes as saying he overreacted to the "New Left" in 1968 and said that although college activists in the late 1960s were often abrasive and intolerant, they had the right instincts. He tells the Observer that he now believes in reducing penalties for marijuana possession to a misdemeanor.

The file also holds a pamphlet from Barnes' first campaign for lieutenant governor and then two from his re-election bid plus a bumper sticker from one of his campaigns for that office. The file also includes an undated Christmas card featuring an indoor portrait of Barnes and his family, a Christmas card dated December 14, 1968, with a picture of the lieutenant governor and his family in front of the Capitol, and an invitation to a brunch honoring Barnes October 28, 1970, at the Westwood Country Club. A booklet, "Lieutenant Governor Ben Barnes Welcomes Texans to the Texas Senate," features a listing of senators, their portraits, and information on how a bill becomes law in the state Legislature.

Vertical File: (3) Barnes, Nancy, Mrs. (Briscoe Center for American History)

This file contains four feature stories on Barnes' second wife, who was married to him while he was lieutenant governor. The September 15, 1971, Dallas Times Herald article "Capitol Offense?" describes Nancy Sayers' life with her first husband, Scott Sayers, an administrative assistant to Gov. John Connally who had two children with Nancy and passed away several years earlier. Sayers became the first woman ever to head a major state board or commission when she was appointed head of the Texas Employment Commission.

Another feature story from the September 26, 1971, Dallas Morning News, "Nancy Barnes: Campaigner's Dream," provides a biographical sketch and describes her valuable role as a speechmaker and an entertainer for her husband's political campaigns. Two other articles, "Ben Barnes' Bride," from the August 22, 1971, Austin American-Statesman and "Mrs. Ben Barnes Doesn't Tire From Hard Schedule," from the April 20, 1972, San Angelo Standard Times describes the hectic lives led by Nancy Barnes and her husband.

Audiotape:

Ben Barnes Interview, 2004.

Interview with Ben Barnes conducted at his Austin office by Dr. Patrick Cox and Dr. Michael Phillips of the Texas House Speakers' Oral History Project. The interview opens with Barnes discussing his recent appearance on the television show "60 Minutes," an interview in which he said he gave a special favor to future President George H.W. Bush in arranging the assignment of his son, George W. Bush, to serve in the Texas Air National Guard during the Vietnam War. Barnes also describes his experiences growing up in DeLeon and his time as a student at the University of Texas at Austin. He details his early career in the Texas House, and his relationship with House Speaker Byron Tunnell, Gov. John Connally, and President Lyndon Johnson. He analyzes his role in creating the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board and outlines the politics surrounding taxes to fund public and higher education in the 1960s and today. Other segments of the interview deal with his term as lieutenant governor, the Sharpstown scandal, and his failed 1972 race for governor. Barnes also relates the details of his relationship with the liberal and conservative factions of the Democratic Party in the 1960s and 1970s and the reason for the modern Democratic Party's decline in Texas.

AUDIO Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Prints and Photographs Collection: (Briscoe Center for American History)

An official portrait of Barnes from his speakership.

Videotape:

60 Minutes Story on George W. Bush National Guard Service, 1992.
1 videocassette (15 min.) color; 1/2 in.

Dan Rather-narrated segment includes an interview with Ben Barnes in which Barnes says that he used his influence as the Texas lieutenant governor to help future President George W. Bush avoid Vietnam War service through placement in the Texas Air National Guard.

VHS. VIDCASS Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Top


GUS F. MUTSCHER
(1932–)
67th Speaker
(1969–1971)

Presided over

The 61st Legislature's regular session, January 14 to June 2, 1969; the 61st Legislature's first called session, July 28 to August 26, 1969; the 61st Legislature's 2nd called session, August 27 to September 9, 1969.

The 62nd Legislature's regular session, January 12 to May 31, 1971; the 62nd Legislature's first called session, June 1 to June 4, 1971.

Born in the Washington County community of William Penn in 1932, Gus F. Mutscher attended William Penn Common School and graduated from Brenham High School. Attending Blinn Junior College on a baseball scholarship, he graduated with an Associate of Arts degree and then enrolled in the University of Texas at Austin where he received a Bachelor of Business Administration in 1956 and a Reserve Commission in the U.S. Army.

While working for the Borden Company, Mutscher won election in 1960 to the Texas House of Representatives. As representative of Austin, Burleson, Lee, Waller, and Washington counties, Mutscher served on several committees, including stints as chair of the Committee on Claims and Accounts, chair of the Legislative Redistricting Committee, and vice chair of the Appropriations and Liquor Regulations Committees. He served as well on the Texas Land Title Committee, the Legislative Budget Board, and the Texas Legislative Council. In 1969 Mutscher was elected Speaker of the House, serving until 1971. During his tenure, the House increased state financial support for higher education, mental health, and other state social services. The Legislature also lowered the voting age to eighteen. Finally, the Legislature successfully presented to voters an amendment to the state Constitution allowing sales of "liquor by the drink." Mutscher said he supported the move so that Texas could complete in the national tourism market.

In 1971 Mutscher resigned as speaker due to the scandal that became known simply as "Sharpstown." In 1972 a jury convicted Mutscher on charges he accepted bribes from banker Frank Sharp in return for passage of favorable banking legislation. An investigation begun by the Securities and Exchange Commission over allegations of stock fraud led ultimately to a massive turnover in the Legislature and the defeat of many statewide officeholders in the 1972 elections.

In 1976 Mutscher was appointed to fulfill the unexpired term of a Washington County Judge. Over the next fourteen years, Judge Mutscher pursued an agenda of administrative and judicial modernization. He won election as chair of the Brazos Valley Development Council, President of the Texas Regions, and then President of the National Association of Regional Councils of Government. Simultaneously, he served as president of the South Texas County Judges and Commissioners Association and as state president of the same association. He continues to live in Brenham.

University Materials Related to Speaker Mutscher

Books:

The outer you ... the inner you. Written by Donna Axum. Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1978.

RA 778 A986 Center for American History. Use in library only.
RA 778 A986 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Barn Building/Barn Burning: Tales of a Political Life From LBJ Through George W. Bush and Beyond. Written by Ben Barnes and Lisa Dickey. Albany, Tex.: Bright Sky Press, 2006

F 391.4 B37 A3 2006. PCL
LAW F 391.4 B37 A3 2006.

Choice of Texans: leaders in the statehouse. Austin, Tex: 1969.

Reprinted from Texas Parade, January 1969. Contains profiles of Mutscher, Ben Barnes, Preston Smith, and Crawford C. Martin.

- Q - T923.2764 T312C Center for American History. Use in library only.

The year they threw the rascals out. Written by Charles Deaton. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (1973).

F 391.2 D42 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 D42 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391.2 D42 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.2 D42 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391.2 D42 Public Affairs Library
LAW F 391.2 D42 Law Library

Sharpstown revisited: Frank Sharp and a tale of dirty politics in Texas. Written by Mickey Herskowitz. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, c1994.

F 391.2 H465 1994 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Texas under a cloud. Written by Sam Kinch, Jr., and Ben Procter. Austin, Jenkins Pub. Co., 1972.

F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks Copy 2.
F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 K5 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.2 K5 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391.2 K5 Public Affairs Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Documents:

The House of Representatives of the State of Texas: general information and historical notes. Written by Gus F. Mutscher, Speaker of the House. Austin: House of Representatives, 197–.

LAW KFT 1623 A85 Law Library
JK 4866 T45 PCL Stacks
TZZ 328.764 T312H Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
T328.764 T312H Center for American History. Use in library only.
T328.764 T312H Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.

On the duties, responsibilities, ethics and compensation of the members of the Texas House of Representatives: a report of the Citizens' Committee of 100 to the Honorable Gus F. Mutscher, Speaker, Texas House of Representatives. Austin, Tex.: The Committee, 1971.

JK 4878 C58 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW KFT 1623 C5 Law Library

Vertical File: Mutscher, Gus (Briscoe Center for American History)

A June 2, 1968, Austin American-Statesman article, "Gus Mutscher: The Eligible Bachelor," notes that in the next legislative session Mutscher will become the first single man to hold the speaker's post since Sam Rayburn. The story describes Mutscher's busy schedule as he campaigns for the 142 of 150 House members pledged to support his speakership bid and mentions his career as a semi-pro-baseball player. An April 23, 1969, University of Texas press release announces that Mutscher has been named a distinguished alumnus of the College of Business Administration. The file also contains the front page of the August 3, 1970, Houston Chronicle that includes a story on Mutscher Day, an event held in Brenham attended by 4,000.

The first mention of the Sharpstown scandal in the file comes with an August 13, 1971, Daily Texan article, "FDIC Sues Mutscher," which notes that Mutscher to date had made only one payment of $7,982 on a $340,000 loan from a now-defunct Sharpstown bank. A September 24, 1971, Austin American-Statesman article, "His Title is 'Mr. Speaker,'" which describes the arising Sharpstown scandal, provides Mutscher's explanation and includes a biographical sketch.

Numerous stories from February and March 1972 cover Mutscher's bribery trial. A February 28, 1972 Houston Chronicle article, "Mutscher Defense Calls Gov. Smith, Barnes," notes that Smith profited from loans and transactions made with Frank Sharp but that Barnes has not yet been shown to have directly benefited from his relationship with the banker. A March 15, 1972, Houston Chronicle article, "House Speaker's Removal Expected," covers Mutscher's conviction that day on conspiracy to commit bribery charges and cites a state law that bars felons from holding public office. Unless the conviction is overturned, the story reports, Mutscher will have to be removed. The speaker's sentencing is covered in a March 16, 1972, Houston Chronicle article, "Gus Mutscher Gets 5 Years Suspended."

A photograph from the March 16, 1972, shows a workman placing a piece of white wallboard to cover a plaque in the basement of the state Capitol that reads "Gus Mutscher House Hearing Room." The cutline notes that a framed copy of the Texas Declaration of Independence replaced a portrait of Mutscher that hung in the room. Several stories from March 22, 1972, cover Mutscher's decision to resign.

A series of features from late April cover Donna Mutscher's reaction to her husband's conviction and resignation of the speakership. Stories from 1973 and 1974 chart the progress of Mutscher's appeal of his bribery conviction. A June 4, 1974, Houston Chronicle article, "Mutscher's Wife Files for Divorce," covers the breakup of Mutscher's marriage to his wife Donna, crowned Miss America in 1964. A November 11, 1974, Daily Texan article, "Mutscher Denied Motion for Appeal," covers the failure of Mutscher's lawyers to overturn the former speaker's bribery conviction.

In spite of this, Mutscher's political career had not ended. Probationers, after serving a third of their sentence, may file a motion asking for a new trial. If the prosecutor declines to file charges again, the charges shall be dismissed. This happened in Mutscher's case, as his conviction was voided and two hours later he was appointed Washington County judge, a development covered in the July 27, 1972, Daily Texan. An April 13, 1978, Dallas Times Herald article, "Anger of Sharpstown, divorce fades for Mutscher's ex-wife," discusses the release of Donna Axum's book, "The Outer You, The Inner You," which relates her side of the Sharpstown scandal and the crumbling of her marriage to Mutscher.

A February 23, 1980, Dallas Morning News article, "Ex-Speaker burned in scandal offers sympathy," quotes Mutscher as expressing understanding of current Speaker Billy Clayton's suffering. Clayton is facing charges that he accepted a bribe in an FBI sting. Stories from September 1981 cover a grand jury investigation that Mutscher as county judge lead a Washington County Courthouse that violated procedures leasing school land to a company that did not submit the high bid. Mutscher is cleared of wrongdoing.

The September 9, 1989, Austin American-Statesman reports, "Mutscher files for Chapter 11," noting that the county judge was facing foreclosure on a number of properties he owned. Stories from late 1991 pertain to charges that Mutscher in 1986 defrauded investors of $1.2 million in a Washington County land venture. A November 11, 1992, Victoria Advocate story reports, "Ex-Speaker pleads guilty in Brenham, La Grange scheme." Mutscher pled guilty to one count of mail fraud and was later sentenced to four years probation and a $756,000 fine.

Audiotape:

Gus Mutscher Interview, 2004.

Interview with Gus Mutscher conducted at his Washington County office by Dr. Patrick Cox of the Texas House Speakers Oral History Project. The interview focuses on his years as a House member, his speakership, his time as chair of the Legislative Redistricting Committee and on the Legislative Budget Board, his reaction to the Sharpstown Stock Fraud scandal and his subsequent trial for bribery and, finally, his post-House career as Washington County Judge.

AUDIO Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Prints and Photographs Collection: (Briscoe Center for American History)

An official portrait of Mutscher from his speakership.

Top


JAMES L. SLIDER
(1924–1990)
Interim Speaker
(1972)

Presided over

The opening of the 62nd Legislature's 2nd called session, March 28, 1972.

Born on September 17, 1924, in Bowie County, James L. Slider graduated from James Bowie High School in Simms. A World War II veteran, Slider was first elected to the Texas House of Representatives in 1960. A six-term representative whose district included Cass, Marion and Morris counties, Slider at different times served as chair of the House Parks and Wildlife Committee and the Insurance Committee.

Slider was chair of the State Affairs Committee when Gus Mutscher abruptly resigned as speaker the day before the Legislature's second called session in 1972 opened. Mutscher appointed Slider to preside over the House at the opening of that session. Slider called the Legislature to order and served as speaker while a new presiding officer, Rayford Price, was elected. In 1981, the House of Representatives of the 67th Legislature adopted a resolution recognizing his service as interim speaker.

University Materials Related to James Slider

Books:

The year they threw the rascals out. Written by Charles Deaton. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (1973)

F 391.2 D42 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 D42 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391.2 D42 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.2 D42 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391.2 D42 Public Affairs Library
LAW F 391.2 D42 Law Library

Sharpstown revisited: Frank Sharp and a tale of dirty politics in Texas. Written by Mickey Herskowitz. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, c1994.

F 391.2 H465 1994 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Texas under a cloud. Written by Sam Kinch, Jr., and Ben Procter. Austin, Jenkins Pub. Co., 1972.

F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks Copy 2.
F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 K5 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.2 K5 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391.2 K5 Public Affairs Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Vertical File: Slider, James L. (Briscoe Center for American History)

The file contains a single item: a page from the April 24, 1991, Senate Journal containing the resolution adopted by the Senate April 22, 1991, "in memory of James Lenoy Slider, who passed away August 4, 1990." The resolution recognizes his services as chair of the House Parks and Wildlife Committee, the Insurance Committee and the State Affairs Committee.

Top


RAYFORD PRICE
(1937–)
68th Speaker
(1972–1973)

Presided over

The 62nd Legislature's 2nd called session, March 28 to March 30, 1972; the 62nd Legislature's 3rd called session, June 14 to July 7, 1972; the 62nd Legislature's 4th called sessions September 18 October 17, 1972.

Born in Jacksonville in Cherokee County in East Texas on February 9, 1937, Price grew up in the nearby town of Frankston in Anderson County. His father, Quanah Quantrill Price, was owner and publisher of the Frankston Citizen. Rayford Price graduated from Frankston High School as valedictorian in 1955 and attended Lon Morris College where he was active in student politics. Price transferred to the University of Texas at Austin and worked as a printer to pay for tuition at the university. He received his law degree in 1963.

Price won his first election to the Texas House of Representatives before finishing law school, and represented Palestine as a Democrat from 1961 to 1973. He held a leadership position every term he served in the House, including a stint as chair of the Committee on Contingent Expenses his freshman term. He was later named chair of the Committee on Constitutional Amendments and then became head of the Committee on State Affairs in his next-to-last term in the House. Price originally intended to run for speaker in 1973 but Gus Mutscher was forced to resign that post in 1972 as a result of his indictment for conspiracy to commit bribery in the Sharpstown Scandal. Price won election as Mutscher's successor for the remainder of the legislative year. Hoping to prevent in the future the excesses he believed had occurred under Mutscher's leadership, Price focused his short tenure as speaker on reforming House rules to reduce the power of conference committees and to introduce a limited seniority system. A political conservative, Price faced opposition from the so-called "Dirty Thirty" coalition of liberal Democrats and Republicans who had been locked out of decision-making by the traditional House Democratic leadership. A member of the "Dirty Thirty," Fred Head, moved into Price's district in order to challenge the speaker's House re-election bid. Running in a year in which the Sharpstown scandal had created a strong anti-incumbent mood, Price lost in a razor-tight upset. Price presided as speaker over two more special sessions before ending his political career in January 1973.

He moved to Dallas to form a law firm with Ray Hutchison, then a state legislator and husband of current United States Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison. Price currently practices law in Austin.

University Materials Related to Speaker Price

Books:

The year they threw the rascals out. Written by Charles Deaton. Austin, Tex., Shoal Creek Publishers (1973).

F 391.2 D42 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 D42 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391.2 D42 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.2 D42 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391.2 D42 Public Affairs Library
LAW F 391.2 D42 Law Library

Sharpstown revisited: Frank Sharp and a tale of dirty politics in Texas. Written by Mickey Herskowitz. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, c1994.

F 391.2 H465 1994 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Texas under a cloud. Written by Sam Kinch, Jr., and Ben Procter. Austin, Jenkins Pub. Co., 1972.

F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks Copy 2
F 391.2 K5 PCL Stacks
F 391.2 K5 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.2 K5 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.
F 391.2 K5 Public Affairs Library

Country editor: a collection of excerpts from a column by the same name that appeared more or less regularly in the Frankston Citizen of Frankston, Texas for a period of forty-two years. Written by Quanah Price. Frankston, Tex.: Price Publishing Company (1976?).

PN 4899 F7363 P75 Center for American History TXC-ZZ Collection. Use in library only.

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Vertical Files:

Vertical File (1): Price, Rayford (Briscoe Center for American History)

A small number of clippings focus on his brief career as speaker. A January 26, 1971, Houston Chronicle article "Price Vows to Challenge Mutscher for Speaker," covers the Palestine House member's plan to challenge the incumbent speaker, mired in a corruption investigation by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Price says he will run regardless of whether or not Mutscher decides to continue in speaker.

Other articles note that Price decided that, after six terms, he should run for speaker or retire from the Legislature and indicate that Mutscher allies have scrambled to find a candidate to oppose Price. A March 28, 1972, Dallas Morning News article, "Mutscher to Resign," indicates that the beleaguered speaker will open the coming special session, but turn the gavel over to James Slider after he officially resigns the speakership.

An April 11, 1971, Austin American-Statesman feature, "Mrs. Rayford Price," includes a large photo and notes that Barbara Price, a University of Texas at Austin graduate who majored in sociology and minored in psychology, married the future speaker just after he finished his first term in the state Legislature. Another feature story from the April 15, 1972, Dallas Morning News, "Philosophical describes her," describes Barbara Price as accepting that her husband's life as House speaker will be time-consuming, nothing that he was a politician when she met him. The story quotes her as saying that on one of her first dates, when she asked him what he wanted to accomplish, she says he replied, "to see the State Constitution rewritten."

Several stories cover Price's election as speaker, with a March 29, 1972, Houston Chronicle article, "New Speaker Price Took Quick, Quiet Way Up," providing a brief biographical sketch. A June 17, 1971, Houston Post article, "Price proposes House rules reform," quotes Price as calling for regular procedures and times by which speaker candidates file for the office and by which they report their campaign contributions. Price also advocates a thorough reorganization of the House Rules Committee to limit its functions in assigning bills to the legislative calendar. He also wants to create by statute a House committee that would set rules for the size of House members' staffs, and set limits on expense accounts, use of House printing facilities and regulate members' qualifications, as well as set new ethics and grievance rules. Price's introduction of these measures is covered in the March 29, 1972, Houston Chronicle article, "New Speaker Moves to Cut Own Powers." Several articles from March and April 1972 contain praise from other state leaders such as Ben Barnes for how Price handled the transition in House leadership.

Many of the remaining articles cover Price's loss to Fred Head in the Democratic primary for his House seat. Head was backed by the so-called "Dirty Thirty," the coalition of Republicans and liberal Democrats who opposed the House's entrenched conservative Democratic leadership. Other articles cover Price's announcement in November that he will vote for Republican President Richard Nixon and Texas GOP Sen. John Tower and his May 1973 announcement that he was quitting the Democratic Party and joining the Republicans.

Vertical File (2): Price, Quanah, Mrs. (Center for American History)

The folder contains one item, am obituary from the February 14, 1980, Dallas Morning News, "Funeral held for mother of ex-speaker." Vaya Price, 74, was the mother of Rayford Price and the widow of Quanah Price, the longtime publisher of the Frankston Citizen.

Audiotape:

Rayford Price Interview, 2004.

Interview with Rayford Price conducted at his Austin home by Dr. Michael Phillips of the Texas House Speakers Oral History Project. Price discusses his background growing up in East Texas, his father's career as a newspaper man, the political and moral difficulties faced by East Texas politicians in the 1950s and 1960s regarding segregation, his evaluation of speakers such as Jimmy Turman, Byron Tunnell, Ben Barnes and Gus Mutscher, the Sharpstown Scandal and his brief speakership, his difficult House reelection bid against Fred Head, the decline of the Democratic Party in Texas and his post-legislative career.

Audio. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Prints and Photographs Collection: (Briscoe Center for American History)

An official portrait of Price from his speakership.

Top


MARION PRICE DANIEL, JR.
(1941–1981)
69th Speaker
(1973–1975)

Presided over

The 63rd Legislature's regular session, January 9 to May 28, 1973; the 63rd Legislature's 1st called session December 18 to December 20, 1973.

Daniel also served as president of the 1974 Texas Constitutional Convention from January 8, 1974 to July 30, 1974.

Born in 1941, Marion Price Daniel, Jr., was the son of Marion Price Daniel, Sr. The elder Daniel had served as Texas House Speaker from 1943 to 1945, won election to the office of state attorney general in 1946, became a United States Senator in 1952, and then won the gubernatorial campaign in 1956. A political career thus was probably inevitable for the younger Daniel who, born in 1941, grew up in Liberty, and operated a Waco bookshop that specialized in Texana while he studied law at Baylor University.

Daniel won his first term in the Texas House in 1968. Generally friendly to labor and to House reform efforts, he never formally aligned himself with the House "Dirty Thirty" faction seeking to remove Gus Mutscher from the speakership. Armed with his famous name, however, he soon emerged as the Dirty Thirty's favorite alternative to the status quo dominance of conservative Democrats.

Amid the tumult generated by the Sharpstown scandal, Daniel won the speakership in 1973. Under Daniel's speakership, the state Legislature passed new ethics and financial disclosure requirements for public officials, more stringently regulated lobbyists, and strengthened open meetings and open records laws.

In 1973, Texas Parade magazine named Daniel the "man to watch" in Texas politics and Time magazine placed him on a list as one of the nation's top 100 leaders. Some spoke of a Daniel run for the Senate or even president. Daniel made a tactical mistake, however, pledging from the beginning to serve only one term as speaker. His one-term promise meant that his hold over the Texas House was automatically weakened as members scrambled to be elected as the next speaker.

Daniel was elected president of the state Constitutional Convention of 1974, with the House and Senate meeting in joint session from January to July to draft a new state Constitution to replace the 1876 document still in effect. The convention failed by three votes to approve the new Constitution and send it to Texas voters for final approval. Under his successor as speaker, Bill Clayton, the Constitution was finally submitted to the voters, but it was rejected.

Politically wounded by this failure, Daniel lost in the 1978 Democratic primary for attorney general by Mark White, who later became governor. Returning to Liberty, Daniel resumed practicing law and occasionally taught law and government classes at the University of Houston, the South Texas School of Law, and Texas Southern University. At age 39, Daniel was shot to death at his home in Liberty on January 19, 1981.

University Materials Related to Speaker Daniel

Books:

Note: Price Daniel, Jr., was a bookseller who sold many rare Texana-related items. As such, he is frequently listed in the UT catalog as an author for works that he actually published.

Deadly blessing. Written by Steve Salerno. New York: Morrow, c1987.

HV 6533 T4 S25 1987 PCL Stacks
HV 6533 T4 S25 1987 PCL Stacks Copy 2
HV 6533 T4 S25 1987 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW HV 6533 T4 S25 1987 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Master's Report:

Perceptions of a change in power: the speakerships of Price Daniel, Jr. and Billy Wayne Clayton. Written by Peter Bernstein. Austin, Tex.: University of Texas at Austin, 1975. Report (M.A.)–University of Texas at Austin.

Report 1975 B456 Public Affairs Library

Scrapbooks and Vertical Files: (Briscoe Center for American History)

Scrapbook (1): 1960–1973. Daniel, Price, Jr.

A February 5, 1961, Houston Chronicle Magazine feature, "Price Daniel, Jr., Mail-Order Bookman," describes Daniel's mail-order book business, housed in the Baylor student's apartment, which specializes in rare Texana. A December 24, 1965, Dallas Morning News item, "Price Daniel, Jr. Engaged," announces his engagement to his first wife, Diane Ford Wommack of Austin. The wedding is covered in the April 17, 1966, Dallas Morning News. A January 25, 1968, San Antonio Express article, "Daniel To Run For House Seat," chronicles the start of Daniel's political career. A March 24, 1971, Houston Post article, "Price, Jr. may go for speaker," covers Daniel's first steps towards a House leadership position. Daniel is quoted as saying that although he is considering a speaker's race in 1973, he is not discouraging House members already putting his name forward.

"Named After Governors; His Pop Seeks Speaker Post," a April 4, 1971, San Angelo Standard Times article, discusses the distinguished lineage of Thomas Daniel, the son of Price Daniel, Jr. Thomas Houston Daniel was named after his maternal great-great grandfather Thomas Campbell, who was Texas governor from 1906–1908 and his paternal great-great-great grandfather Sam Houston. Thomas Daniel is also the grandson of another governor, Price Daniel, Sr.

Several stories from September 22, 1971, cover Daniel's announcement that he is entering the speaker's race. Daniel proposes a new state law, outlined in a June 22, 1971, Dallas Times Herald article, "Daniel Proposes 1-Term Limit for Speaker's Office." In the story, Daniel accuses current speaker Gus Mutscher of using public money for private gain. Another September 22 story, in the Houston Post, describes other reforms proposed by Daniel. He calls for a law requiring that speaker candidates report the sources and amounts of their campaign contributions and their expenditures. He also advocates a law prohibiting a speaker or any other person from offering or promising anything of monetary value or from promising to make an appointment in return for the pledge of a House member's vote in a speaker's race. Finally, he supports a law limiting House-Senate conference committees to adjusting differences between bills passed by the two houses.

A January 5, 1972, Dallas Morning News story, "Daniel Says Price's Win Won't Affect His Plans," quotes him as saying that Rayford Price's election as speaker at the start of 1972's second called session won't affect his 1973 speaker's race. Daniel declares victory in the June 5, 1972 Houston Post article, "Daniel claims enough votes to win House speakership."

Several articles following Daniel's clinching of the speaker's post note that Daniel follows in his father's footsteps. Because of the considerable support Daniel enjoys from the House's liberal, reform-minded faction, several stories ask how liberal Daniel might become as speaker. An August 13, 1972, Houston Post article, "Dirty 30 members to get key posts in Daniel regime," notes that Carl Parker, Dan Kubiak and Neil Caldwell, important leaders of the House reform faction, were likely to end up with key committee assignments.

Daniel further aligns himself with the liberal faction by listing constitutional revision, a workable mass transit system for large Texas cities, stronger pollution controls, and legislative reform at the top of his agenda for the 1973 legislative session. The December 3, 1972, Houston Chronicle article, "Daniel Gives Priorities For Legislature," outlines these plans. A December 7, 1972, Dallas Times Herald article, "Rep. Daniel to propose law for shield of news sources," covers Daniel's suggestion that the Legislature pass a law that prohibits grand juries from compelling reporters to reveal their sources except when allegations of libel or invasion of privacy are involved. Even more proposed laws are described in the December 13, 1972, Houston Chronicle article, "Daniel Aims 9 Reform Bills At Scandals." Among Daniel's proposals are recommendations for a stronger open meetings law and a freedom of information statute providing public access to government documents. Daniel is elected unanimously as speaker, as is reported in the January 10, 1973, Dallas Morning News.

A January 21, 1973, Austin American-Statesman feature story, "Price Jr. and Wife Politically Potent," describes Price Daniel, Jr. as politically independent of his father, the former Texas governor, and says that Daniel and his wife Diane talk and consult about politics constantly. An accompanying feature, "Speaker's Wife Enjoys the Political Life," describes Diane Daniel as enjoying helping her husband form policy. She's also described as helping her husband by getting to know the wives of other House members.

Several articles describe Daniel's support of strengthening the press' access to public meetings and documents. An April 1, 1973, Dallas Times Herald article "Press group picks Daniel for award," reports on Daniel's selection for the Texas Association of Sigma Delta Chi's "Friend of the Press " award for promoting press freedom in the state. Another Dallas Times Herald story, "Daniel claims big gains," published on April 1, 1973, notes that both liberals and conservatives praise Daniel for his hard work and fairness in opening up the legislative process even to his opponents.

Several subsequent articles, however, note the weakening momentum for Daniel's reform agenda because of conservative domination of the Senate, his pledge to not run for re-election, and controversy over his private expenditure on a costly party and gifts for House members. Opponents noted that the money for the party and gifts came from lobbyists. Several stories then speculated whether he would run for chairman for the state constitutional convention called for by the Legislature for 1974. In several stories Daniel says he favors offering the shortest, simplest, easiest-to-read Constitution to the voters for approval.

Vertical File (1): Daniel, Price, Jr.

The file focuses on Daniel's stewardship of the failed 1974 Texas Constitutional Convention. A January 6, 1974, Dallas Times Herald article, "Daniel assured of place in history," notes the virtual certainty that Daniel will be elected president of the upcoming state Constitutional Convention and, if the convention is successful, this will further propel an already promising political career. Daniel, the story says, has worked to make the convention as smooth as possible by splitting the committee chairmanships between the House and Senate, and says that he will work to keep controversial matters such as right-to-work and legislative pay commission provisions as separate items on a statewide referendum.

Other articles from January 1974 note that Daniel's chairmanship of the Constitutional Convention virtually rules out a statewide race for Daniel later that year. A January 27, 1974, Dallas Times Herald story "Ice Cream Parlor Push," details Price Daniel, Jr.'s rapid rise to power. The article provides details as to his election as speaker, including admission from Daniel's supporters that they had exaggerated the number of pledge cards they had collected to make his victory appear inevitable.

Daniel's political plans for the year are made official in the February 2, 1974, Dallas Morning News story, "Daniel Decides Against Making Statewide Race." In the story, Daniel says that his duties presiding over the state Constitutional Convention are more important than his personal political ambitions. Trouble signs appear in articles from late February and March which note the slow pace at which the delegates to the convention are working and reports of disputes between Daniel and convention members such as Rep. Jim Nugent of Kerrville. Nugent charges that Daniel's insistence that a new Constitution be drafted in 90 days has become an obstacle, arguing that producing the best document is more important than sticking to an arbitrary schedule. Daniel retorts that some members of the convention are "cockroaches" grasping at anything to undermine the convention. This provokes some members of the convention to wear cockroach pins in protest. Other stories cover the deadlock at the convention over the creation of a $32 million fund to support the 20 state-supported colleges and universities not part of the University of Texas or Texas A&M system.

Other stories note that members of the convention are grumbling that Daniel is responsible for the slow pace of the convention. Included in the file are stories that report disagreements between the convention chair and members over whether declaring a recess so members can conduct primary campaigns will kill the momentum for a new Constitution. Early competition to replace lame duck Speaker Daniel also becomes a problem, as indicated by the May 21, 1974, Houston Post article, "Daniel requests candidates for speaker to cool campaigns." The speaker campaigns by representatives Billy Clayton, Fred Head, Carl Parker, and others already have created a distraction, the Post reports. Rumors spread through the convention that bribery attempts had been made on behalf of Parker and Head even as Parker and Clayton both declined to release a voluntary report of financial worth.

As the Constitutional Convention sputters along, a pair of stories from July 1974 reveals the uncertainty of Daniel's political future. A July 11, 1974, Austin American-Statesman article, "Daniel Pegged 'Leader'" reports that Daniel has been named by Time magazine as one of its emerging leaders of America. Other Texans on the list include Congress members Barbara Jordan and Alan Steelman, businessman H. Ross Perot and Houston mayor J. Fred Hofheinz. The July 30, 1974, Houston Post article, "Warnings Haunting Daniel at convention," notes that Daniel's advisers had cautioned him that chairing a Constitutional Convention represented a political minefield. Reporting the bitter criticisms rising against Daniel from liberals and conservatives, the newspaper notes that such advice appears in retrospect to be wise.

The Dallas Times Herald reports the collapse of the Constitutional Convention in its July 31, 1974, analysis, "Daniel blames Briscoe, labor, politics for failure." Daniel charged that Gov. Dolph Briscoe declined to use his gubernatorial power to persuade legislators to vote for the new constitution. The draft constitution failed to win a convention majority by three votes. Daniel also charged that the AFL-CIO torpedoed the revision because of their opposition to a right-to-work clause in the new Constitution, which would have prevented unions from declaring a work site a closed shop. Daniel charged that legislators who privately backed a right-to-work clause refused to publicly support it for fear of the political repercussions. Daniel, in the August 2, 1974, Fort Worth Star-Telegram article "Success Within Grasp Daniel Says of Pact," declares that the speaker might campaign to persuade the 64th legislature, which would convene in 1975, to directly submit to the voters the failed Constitution.

Several subsequent articles speculate on whether Daniel's political future has been destroyed by the failed convention. Other stories include charges by Representative Mickey Leland of Houston that Daniel "sold out" minorities in backing a Constitution with a right-to-work provision, and quote other critics as claiming that Daniel used the convention to promote Carl Parker, representative from Port Arthur, as his successor in the speakership.

A September 5, 1974, Dallas Times Herald story, "Daniel says he leans to Parker as speaker, but would be content with Clayton," reports that Clayton already has enough votes sewn up to win the speakership the next session. In the story, Daniel denies using his office to influence the race. A May 2, 1975, Fort Worth Star-Telegram story, "University hires Price Daniel, Jr., as law professor" notes the former speaker's appointment as visiting law professor at Texas Southern University. An October 29, 1975 Dallas Times Herald article, "Daniel says he'll wait for office," quotes Daniel as stating that he will stay out of politics until at least 1978.

A February 1975 Texas Monthly article, "Give Me Liberty," provides a biographical sketch of Daniel and his relationship with his father as well as describing briefly the career of Bill Daniel, Daniel's uncle, who was appointed governor of Guam by John Kennedy. The article suggests that Daniel, with his bitter press conference blaming labor and minority delegates for the failure of the Texas Constitutional Convention, burned a number of political bridges and that this will make any Daniel political comeback difficult.

A November 6, 1975, Dallas Times Herald story, "Daniel blasts McKnight stance," quotes Daniel as he accuses Peyton McKnight, the state senator from Tyler, of "deceit, deception and distortion" in his statewide campaign opposing the proposed new state Constitution, which will be voted on in a referendum. Daniel said that special interests and lobbyists bankroll McKnight's anti-constitutional revision group, "Citizens to Preserve the Texas Constitution," which also claims former Texas governors Allan Shivers and Preston Smith as members.

A July 25, 1976, San Angelo Standard story, "Former House Speaker Daniel Said Eyeing AG's Position," quotes Daniel as saying, after meeting with incumbent state Attorney General John Hill, the he has the feeling that Hill will not seek a third term. Several subsequent stories cover Daniel's race for the post against Mark White and note Gov. Dolph Briscoe's declaration of neutrality in the race, even though he is known to be a close friend of White's. Other stories report that 32 Mexican American elected officials endorse Daniel for attorney general.

An October 27, 1977, Houston Post article, "Daniel's wife dismisses divorce action," covers the decision of Vickie Daniel, Price Daniel's second wife, to withdraw the divorce suit that she had filed earlier the same week. Daniel accuses his wife's lawyer, Liberty County Judge Harlan Friend, of initiating the divorce action in order to scuttle Daniel's race for attorney general. The story notes that Daniel's first wife, Diane, had filed for divorce in 1974 while Daniel was still speaker of the House.

The Houston Post covers Price Daniel, Jr.'s, homicide in the January 20, 1981, article, "Price Daniel, Jr., ex-speaker, shot fatally at home." Details in this story are sketchy but describe Vickie Daniel as being hospitalized in a state of "emotional shock" the night of the shooting. Several prominent state officials, such as Attorney General Mark White and Speaker Billy Clayton, describe themselves as deeply saddened at the news and say that, regardless of political differences, they regarded Daniel as a friend. Several January 21, 1981, articles from newspapers across the state note Daniel's role in passing reforms in the House and his failed attempt to secure passage of a new state Constitution. A January 21, 1981, Houston Post article, "Shot that killed Daniel fired by wife official says," reveals the identity of Daniel's killer. The story indicates that there were signs of a struggle and that Vickie Daniel fired what appeared to be a warning shot before fatally gunning him down. The story notes that Vickie Daniel had filed for a divorce for a second time on December 21, 1980, and that the couple's two children and Vickie Daniel's 11-year-old child from a pervious marriage were in the house at the time of the shooting.

A July 13, 1991, Austin American-Statesman story, "TV movie to recount Price Daniel Jr. death," notes that a movie version of Deadly Blessing, a book about Daniel's death, would soon be shot in the Austin area, including the communities of Manor, Bastrop and Lockhart. The story says that Susan Dey, currently starring in the television series L.A. Law, will play Vickie Daniel and that Chris Copper, an actor who appeared in the TV mini-series Lonesome Dove, will play Price Daniel in the movie, which will be called Bed of Lies. Subsequent features concern the filming of the movie in Bastrop and a lawsuit filed by Jean Daniel Murph, the sister of Price Daniel, Jr. She notes that Vickie Daniel's charges that Price Daniel, Jr. was a wife-beater and drug user were never substantiated and that she recanted some of those accusations in the Steven Salerno book upon which the movie is based.

The vertical file also contains a signed September 3, 1964, letter from Price Daniel, Jr. from his book business announcing that his store had obtained the private collection and remaining stock of the late Charles F. Heartman, "noted American bibliographer, bookseller, and publisher." The file also holds a campaign pamphlet from Price Daniel, Jr.'s 1978 attorney general's race.

Vertical File (2): Daniel, Price, Jr.

File includes a random assortment of stories covering Price Daniel, Jr.'s political career and its aftermath, including a mixed assessment of Daniel as a political reformer published in the February 2, 1973, Texas Observer, "Mr. Speaker Daniel." The article describes in detail the movement to replace Gus Mutscher with Daniel and questions his commitment to the reform ideals of the Legislature's so-called "Dirty Thirty."

A December 18, 1977, Corpus Christi Caller article, "Politcos ponder Daniel Sr.-Jr. conflict of interest," discusses the legal issues that might be presented if Daniel, Jr., wins the state attorney general's race and presents a case before the state supreme court, which includes his father as a judge. Several articles after Daniel's homicide quote state officials such as Mark White and Bill Blythe describing the former speaker as a sincere, committed reformer who left a legacy of a more open state government.

A February 8, 1981, Houston Chronicle article, "Price and Vickie," provides biographical sketches of Price and his second wife and describes their stormy second marriage and the immediate aftermath of his fatal shooting. A February 1, 1981, Dallas Morning News story, "Daniel excluded wife from inheritance," noted that Daniel, in a will drawn up eight months earlier, left his estate to his three young children and made no provisions for his second wife. A February 27, 1981, Sherman Democrat story, "Price Daniel critical of Haynes," quotes former Gov. Price Daniel, Sr., as charging Vickie Daniel's attorney Richard "Racehorse" Haynes with lying about his late son during a custody hearing involving Daniel, Sr.'s grandchildren. Haynes, making accusations that would surface during Vickie Daniel's murder trial, implied that Price Daniel, Jr., was a drug-using homosexual.

The file also contains a negative review written by the Austin American-Statesman's Diane Holloway of the movie about Price Daniel's murder, Bed of Lies. In the January 30, 1992, article Holloway notes that the film turns Daniel into an over-the-top villain, inaccurately portrays Vickie Daniel as trashy, and fails to include her admission that some of her charges against her ex-husband were not true. She also notes that Jean Murph, Daniel's sister, sued the producers of the film and even complained about the portrayal of Vickie Daniel, with whom she has maintained a surprisingly "civilized" relationship since Daniel has allowed Murph to visit Price and Vickie's two children.

Vertical File (3): Daniel, Diane (Mrs. Price Daniel, Jr.)

The small file contains a two copies of a feature story on Diane Daniel, "Speaker's Wife Enjoys Political Life; Provided There is Laughter," from the January 21, 1973, Austin American-Statesman. The writer notes that some fear that Diane Daniel, a hard worker on her husband's campaigns, might be a political liability because of her quick wit. Two stories, "Divorce Sought by Mrs. Daniel," from the November 23, 1974, Austin American-Statesman and "Mrs. Price Daniel, Jr. Files For Divorce From Retiring Speaker," from the Houston Chronicle published the same day chronicle the dissolution of Diane and Price Daniel's marriage.

Vertical File (4): Daniel, Vickie (Mrs. Price Daniel, Jr.)

File contains only a note that says "See Scrapbook."

Scrapbook (2): Daniel, Vickie (Mrs. Price Daniel, Jr.)

The scrapbook focuses on the aftermath of Vickie Daniel's fatal shooting of Price Daniel, Jr. and her subsequent murder trial. Early clips from January 1981 focus on Price Daniel's funeral and Vickie Daniel's release from a Liberty hospital where she was being treated for "traumatic shock" following the shooting. Stories from late January concern Vickie Daniel's entry of a "not guilty" plea in the murder case and the results of forensic tests indicating that Price Daniel, Jr. did not handle the weapon used in his homicide. Vickie Daniel is claiming self-defense and prosecutors suggest that this evidence casts doubt on her story. A February 8, 1981, Dallas Morning News story, "Vastly different backgrounds made Daniels an odd couple," notes that Price Daniel rose from a politically prominent background and lived in the spotlight while Vickie Daniel was a "soft-spoken blonde divorcee . . . [who] worked at the Dairy Queen" and never graduated from high school.

A dispute over custody of Price and Vickie Daniel's children is covered in the February 8, 1981, Sherman Democrat story, "Daniel's sister seeks custody of his children." Stories from mid-February cover State District Judge W.G. "Dub" Wood's order that Vickie Daniel and her children undergo mental health tests to determine if her continued custody of the children would serve their well being. This action is a result of Jean Daniel Murph's lawsuit to gain custody of the children. Other stories concern the failure of Richard "Racehorse" Haynes, Vickie Daniel's attorney, to get the custody trial moved from Liberty. The Fort Worth Star-Telegram, in its March 4, 1981, story, "Vickie Daniel agrees to custody deal," reports that lawyers from both sides of the dispute have agreed to leave Daniel's children in her care pending the outcome of a March 12 jury trial to determine final custody.

A March 26, 1981, Houston Post story, "Investigator tells of finding 'substances' in Daniel's attic," quotes Marvin Powell, a criminal investigator for the Liberty County Sheriff's Department as claiming that he found a wooden box with a very small amount of "green substances," that he believed to be marijuana residue. The statement came in custody hearing testimony. The results of lab tests on the substances had not yet been announced. The story relates that, although Vickie Daniel had filed for divorce both she and her husband continued to live in separate parts of the home. Vickie Daniel claims that she argued with Daniel twice on the night of the shooting, once about financial matters, and a second time when Daniel was unable to find the box with marijuana. Vickie Daniel said that she was beaten after each argument and that she then picked up a gun to force him to leave the house. She said she remembered firing a warning shot and then firing a second time accidentally with her eyes closed. She said she was backing away from Daniel after he threatened to kill her but did not mean to hit him.

In other stories Kimberly Moore, Vickie Daniel's daughter from her first marriage testifies that she broke up a fistfight between the Daniels before the shooting. A psychiatrist hired by Murph's lawyers testifies that Vickie Daniel is an emotionally unstable and unfit mother. Vickie Daniel is quoted as testifying during the custody hearing that Price Daniel frequently beat her, beat her son from her first marriage, kicked her while she was pregnant, fondled the Price's son Franklin, and exposed himself to other young boys at the house.

Richard Haynes' tactics for Vickie Daniel's murder trial surface during the custody hearing in which he asks Jean Daniel Murph if she knew personally whether Price Daniel had ever smoked marijuana and had a sexual interest in young boys. After Murph denied these allegations, Haynes brandished a mini-cassette tape recorder, which he claimed held a tape proving his charges.

Several witnesses refute Vickie Daniel's account including Charlotte Daniel, Price Daniel's sister-in-law, who calls the late former speaker a loving father. Larry Moore, Vickie Daniel's former husband, testified that she asked him what would be the firearm he would recommend for killing someone. The question came before Price's Daniel's shooting. Moore also testifies that Vickie often became violent with him during their marriage.

A secretary for Price Daniel refuted Vickie Daniel's claims that she was afraid to leave her son Franklin with his father because she caught him fondling the boy. The secretary, Betty White, said that Vickie Daniel frequently left the boy at Price Daniel's office to be cared for by his father. An April 3, 1981, Victoria Advocate story, "Doctor Cites Daniel Disorder," quotes the testimony of Dr. Kenneth Wetscher, a psychiatrist called by Murph's attorneys, who diagnosed Vickie Daniel as having a "histrionic personality" and "borderline personality disorder." These personality disorders could lead to the development in her children of "homosexual tendencies," excessively macho personalities or the development of a mind that becomes intolerant and abusive of others. A psychiatrist called by Richard "Racehorse" Haynes on behalf of Vickie Daniel later testifies that she is a "normal, healthy individual."

An April 24, 1981, Houston Post article, "Jury lets Vickie Daniel retain custody of 2 sons," reports the jury's decision in the custody case. The jury elected one of the three options provided by the judge: awarding the children of Price and Vickie Daniel to neither Mrs. Daniel nor Jean Murph, a decision meaning that custody falls to Daniel by default with no visitation rights required to be given to Murph. After the custody case, Richard Haynes exits as Daniel's lawyer, with legal representation passing to Jack Zimmerman, a Haynes associate.

The progress of the murder case against Daniel is reported in the October 15, 1981, Houston Post story, "Vickie Daniel murder trial gets under way." Several stories recount a new wrinkle in the testimony of Kimberly Moore, Vickie Daniel's daughter from her first marriage, who testified she heard her mother threaten Price Daniel the night of his death that she was going to shoot him. Stories in late October report that Daniel has waved her right to a jury trial and that the jury has been dismissed. Dismissed jury members were not convinced of Daniel's explanation for the shooting, as reported in the October 29, 1981, Houston Post story, "2 women on dismissed jury say they are convinced of guilt." Judge Leonard J. Giblin, saying that the state had not proved its case beyond a reasonable doubt, found Vickie Daniel not guilty, as reported in several clippings from October 31, 1981. Subsequent stories report that Daniel has sold film rights to her story.

Note: Price Daniel, Jr. was the president of the Texas Constitutional Convention held in 1974 that produced a proposed new state Constitution Texas voters rejected in a 1975 referendum. In addition to the Price Daniel, Jr. vertical files, information on this speaker can be found at The Center for American History in four vertical files containing materials related to the 1974 convention: Texas: Constitutional Revision Commission; Texas Constitutional Convention–1974; Texas–Constitution–Misc.; and Texas Constitution–Amendments.

Audiotapes:

Bill Bass Interview, 2004.

Interview with Bill Bass, a state representative from Ben Wheeler from 1967 to 1973 who engineered Price Daniel, Jr.'s election as speaker. Dr. Michael Phillips of the Texas House Speakers Oral History Project conducted the interview at the Center for American History in Austin. The interview focuses on Bass' career in the Texas House, his role in the election of Price Daniel, Jr. as speaker, his evaluation of Daniel's reform efforts, his analysis of the state's 1974 Constitutional Convention, his reaction to Daniel's slaying in 1981 and his views on the decline of the Democratic Party in Texas the past 30 years.

Audio. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Bill Hartman Interview, 2004.

Interview with Bill Hartman, a newspaper publisher in Rosenberg, Texas, and a friend of Price Daniel, Jr., who served on the Constitutional Revision Commission that wrote a proposed new state Constitution for Texas in preparation for the state's 1974 Constitutional Convention. Dr. Michael Phillips of the Center for American History's Texas House Speakers Oral History project interviewed Hartman in Austin. In the interview, Hartman briefly describes his newspaper career and then provides a detailed account on his work with the revision commission. He analyzes why he believed the proposed Constitution failed to be approved by the convention by three votes and provides an assessment of Daniel's career as speaker. The interview ends with Hartman's reaction to Daniel's 1981 death.

Audio. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. [Transcript not yet available] Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Prints and Photographs Collection: (Briscoe Center for American History)

An official portrait of Daniel from his speakership.

Top


BILL CLAYTON
(1928–2007)
70th Speaker
(1975–1983)

Presided over

The 64th Legislature's regular session, January14 to June 2, 1975.

The 65th Legislature's regular session, January 11 to May 30, 1977; the 65th Legislature's 1st called session, July 11 to July 21,1977; the 65th Legislature's second called session, July 10 to August 8,1978;

The 66th Legislature's regular session, January 9 to May 28, 1979;

The 67th Legislature's regular session, January 13 to June 1, 1981; The 67th Legislature's 1st called session July 13 to August 11, 1981; the 67th Legislature's 2nd called session, May 24 to May 28, 1982; the 67th Legislature's 3rd called session, September 7 to September 9, 1982.

Born in Olney in September 1928, Bill Clayton spent most of his childhood in Springlake, later attending Texas A&M University where he earned a bachelor's degree in agricultural economics. His father's heart attack brought Clayton back to Springlake where, in 1950, he started running the family farm.

He became politically active in the local Democratic Party and was selected to serve as a delegate pledged to presidential candidate Lyndon Johnson in the 1960 Democratic National Convention. In 1962, when Jess Osborne retired from the state House of Representatives, Clayton successfully ran for representative, serving his Panhandle district, including Lamb and surrounding counties, for the next twenty years.

Clayton's fellow House members dubbed him "Mr. Water" because of his heavy involvement in irrigation, water acquisition and conservation issues. He also frequently represented West Texas in numerous regional and national water conferences.

Clayton first won the House speakership in 1975 and in 1979 became the first person to win three consecutive terms in that office (Marion DeKalb Taylor served three non-consecutive terms in 1859, 1863, and 1873.) He became the first person in Texas history elected to a fourth term. As speaker, Clayton expanded the use of computers by legislators and their staffs and improved Capitol press facilities.

Clayton also increased the role of the standing House committees, directing them to research legislation between regular sessions. Furthermore, he gave those committees additional oversight responsibility and power over state agencies under their jurisdiction. He also reformed House rules to allow members to file bills before sessions were called.

Finally, Clayton steered through the Legislature passage of a sunset law creating a commission that reviewed the status and work of state agencies at set intervals. The commission was then empowered to make recommendations to the Legislature regarding particular agencies, including whether they should continue to operate.

The so-called "Brilab" scandal, in which the FBI accused Clayton of accepting a bribe from a contributor, forced the speaker to fight corruption charges in 1980. Clayton was found not guilty in the fall of 1980, and was embraced by members of the West Texas jury. He then was elected to one more term as speaker. Clayton, who suffered a heart attack in 1968, opted to not run for re-election in 1983. Although he hinted that he might run for state Land Commissioner in 1982 and began to raise money for the race, he ultimately decided against running for that office. In 1985 the longtime conservative Democrat switched to the Republican Party. In 1989 Governor William P. Clements, Jr., appointed Clayton to serve as a Texas A&M University System regent.

In 1991, Clayton suffered a mild stroke. Nevertheless, he earned a master of business administration degree from the University of Texas at Austin a year later. He served as president of Capital Consultants, an Austin political and business consulting firm and, with his son Tommy, operated a farm and vineyard in Springlake. Clayton died at the age of 78 on January 6, 2007 in Lubbock.

University Materials Related to Speaker Clayton

Books:

Gavels, grit & glory: the Billy Clayton story. Written by Jimmy Banks. Burnet, Tex.: Eakin Press, c. 1982.

F 391.2 C58 B35 Center for American History. Use in library only.
F 391.2 C58 B35 Public Affairs Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1982. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 1982.

JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy 2. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1982 Center for American History Copy. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1982 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1991. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Texas House of Representatives, 1991.

JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History. Use in library only.
JK 4830 P737 1991 Center for American History TXC-Z Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1991 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–1995. Prepared by the staff of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: Published by the Council, 1995.

JK 4866 T48 1995 PCL Stacks
JK 4866 T48 1995 Center for American History. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 1995 Law Library

Presiding officers of the Texas Legislature, 1846–2002. Prepared by the Research Division of the Texas Legislative Council. Austin, Tex.: The Council, 2002.

TXDOC L1400.5 P926O 2002 Center for American History Reference Collection. Use in library only.
LAW JK 4866 P73 2002 Law Library

Theses:

Perceptions of a change in power: the speakerships of Price Daniel, Jr. and Billy Wayne Clayton. Written by Peter Bernstein. Austin, Tex.: University of Texas at Austin, 1975. Report (M.A.)–University of Texas at Austin.

Report 1975 B456 Public Affairs Library

Billy Clayton: the consolidation of influence through the power of appointment. Written by Phillip Ray Walker. Austin, Texas: University of Texas at Austin, 1984. Thesis (M.A.)–University of Texas at Austin, 1984.

THESIS 1984 W153 PCL Stacks Copy 2.
THESIS 1984 W153 Request at Periodicals Desk PCL Level 2 Copy 1. Use in library only. Item in library storage facility.

Documents:

Texas. Legislature. Senate. Select Committee on Public Education. Senate concurrent resolution 22: report and recommendations (on) legislative implementation and finance formulas. (Authors filed in catalog as) William P. Hobby, Bill Clayton, and W.E. Snelson. Austin, Tex.?: The Committee, 1982. "Submitted to the Sixty-Eighth Legislature, November 1982."

LAW KFT 1595 A89 Law Library

Scrapbooks and Vertical Files: (Briscoe Center for American History)

Scrapbook (1): 1967–1979. Clayton, Bill

Stories from the early 1970s center on Clayton's controversial water plan for West Texas, which includes a proposal to build a canal bringing Mississippi River water across the state line before it branches off down the Sabine River towards Houston and across Northeastern Texas to West Texas. The plan, estimated to cost between $12 billion to $15 billion, was rejected as a bond proposal by Texas voters in 1969 and was criticized by environmentalists, but Clayton is reported in 1971 clippings as still enthusiastically campaigning for it.

Clippings from June 1973 concern his announcement that he is seeking the speaker's position in 1975. Almost immediately upon his announcement, controversy swirls around Clayton's business deals and legislative record, as reported in the June 6, 1973, Houston Post. A Dallas Times Herald article published the same day, "Clayton disclaims interest conflict details questions pertaining to his involvement in a complex land deal along Lake Austin with Texas Railroad Association lobbyist Walter Caven. Critics also question his vote against a lobby control bill and his support for an amendment to permit state officials to file financial disclosures in secret, sealed envelopes.

Controversial as well is his vote for a bill to raise consumer loan interest rates; and for tightening rules on state subsidies to the poor while receiving $57,214 in federal subsidies in 1972 for not growing cotton or feed grain crops on his Lamb county farm. Clayton tells reporters that the farm subsidies were necessary for him to stay in business and that such farm subsidies benefit the consumer, not the farmer. He denies a conflict of interest regarding his Lake Austin investment. Clayton said he opposed the lobby control bill because it was too "restrictive" and later supported a modified bill. He also said that he opposed the financial disclosure bill, even though he says he annually makes open financial disclosures, because disclosure provisions revealing business dealings might discourage "some capable people" from seeking public office.

Clayton makes numerous proposals for changing the state budget process that would limit the power of the key House Appropriations Committee, according to an August 18, 1974, Dallas Morning News story, "'Radical Departure' Cited." Clayton suggests that instead of having the Appropriations Committee approve and pass on one comprehensive budget for a vote by the full House, that other committees handle different components of the budget. The Education Committee, for instance, would write the proposed education budget. The different parts of the budget would then be voted on by the full House. The approved sections then would be passed on to a House-Senate conference committee, which would hammer out a final budget to be approved by the full Legislature. Clayton said these reforms are necessary to maximize the number of House members who have input in the process and to take advantage of the experience and insight of more House members.

Another controversy emerges during Clayton's speaker campaign when the Houston Post, in an August 29, 1974 story, "Clayton defends 600 calls," reports that Clayton spent $1,487.57 in state money for long distance calls in a recent 10-month period. The Houston Post had earlier investigated long distance calls made by Clayton's rivals in the speaker's race, Fred Head and Carl Parker. Head and Parker both acknowledged that personal long distance calls were made "inadvertently" on state accounts. Clayton insisted that all calls from his office were related to state business, but the Post reveals that four calls were made to political contributors who subsequently donated money to Clayton's campaign.

By early September 1974, several press accounts quote Clayton as claiming he holds enough votes to become the next House Speaker. "Rep. Head Gives Up Race; Pledges Support for Clayton," declares a headline from a September 4, 1974, Daily Texan. A follow-up story in the September 30, 1974, Texan, "Clayton's Support Grows In House Speaker's Race," notes that some liberal House members who had previously supported Fred Head for speaker were now supporting Clayton. Other liberals, however, question Clayton's commitment to maintaining reform rules passed by the last Legislature and worry about his voting record as a House member.

The Daily Texan notes Clayton's support for a bill making it a misdemeanor to teach bilingually past the third grade and his past opposition to extending the vote to 18-year-olds. The Dallas Times Herald reports another controversial proposal supported by Clayton in its November 14, 1974, story, "Clayton backs restriction of House chamber access," in which he proposes barring news reporters from the House floor in the interest of improving the chamber's "decorum."

Stories from late December and early January report that, barring an unforeseen event, Clayton has sewn up the speaker's race with pledges of support from more than 100 members. Clayton ends up winning the speakership 112–33. Dallas Morning News columnist Richard Moorehead provides a positive assessment and a biographical sketch of Clayton in his January 9, 1975, column, "Clayton Well Trained for Job." The House approves a number of Clayton-proposed rules changes, as reported in the January 17, 1975 Dallas Times Herald story, "New speaker weathers first test." Clayton's proposals regarding the budget process passed the full House.

A pair of mid-January 1975 clippings note that the Federal Aviation Administration revoked Clayton's pilot's license because he failed to disclose a 1968 heart attack. Clayton denies that he deliberately falsified his applications for pilots' licenses, which could result in a felony conviction and five years in prison. FAA officials state that they are not interested in prosecuting the case.

Coverage from February 1975 indicates Clayton's support for a so-called "Bentsen" bill, which would allow any presidential primary candidate winning a plurality of votes to claim all the state's party convention delegates (a measure thought to favor "favorite son" candidate Sen. Lloyd Bentsen). March coverage includes the contents of a letter Clayton wrote to Adlai Stevenson III, chair of a United States House energy subcommittee, considering legislation to reduce the price ceiling on new natural gas, establishing oil import quotas and rolling back crude oil prices. In the letter, Clayton suggests that the Legislature, in protest, might ban oil production on state-owned land and might move to divide Texas into five states in order to increase Texas' representation in the United States Congress.

Clayton also publicly opposes the national 55 mile an hour speed limit which he says hurts drivers in remote areas in West Texas and other regions of the state. Several stories from late spring 1975 indicate Clayton has imposed a rule requiring his approval before access could be provided to documents concerning the operations, employees or deliberations of the House of Representatives, committees or departments. This procedure would prevent employees from "snooping" on other employees' salaries and causing feuds, Clayton claims, though he pledged to refer the rule to Attorney General John Hill for a legal ruling.

A May 18, 1975, Houston Chronicle headline reports, "Clayton Has Votes for Re-election." The June 8, 1975, Dallas Times Herald article "Speaker Billy Clayton—tough on social legislation," quotes liberal House members as saying that Clayton ruled the recent session with an iron fist reminiscent of Gus Mutscher. Other members complain that Clayton has let water legislation benefiting West Texas dominate the session and hampered bills supporting abortion rights and the Equal Rights Amendment. The October 10, 1975, Daily Texas headline reports, "Clayton Says New Constitution Inevitable," whether or not it is approved by voters in November and quotes the speaker as approving the new Constitution, including provisions for annual passage of budgets. Subsequent articles quote Clayton as favoring a unitary primary system in Texas so crossover voters who want to participate in the Republican presidential primary, but who vote in state and local Democratic primaries, can do so. Other articles in late June 1976 report that Clayton has urged Gov. Dolph Briscoe to call a special session to deal with surging utility rates.

A March 17, 1977, Houston Post article, "Lobby takes aim at speaker's clout," quotes leaders of Common Cause, a pro-reform citizen's group, as expressing concern over the amount of control Clayton has assumed over the flow of legislation. Judi Horton of Common Cause says that Clayton has acquired too much power over the legislative process through his ability to appoint committee chairs, half the membership of each substantive committee and all the members of the powerful Administration and Calendar Committees.

Several stories from this time report that Clayton wants to run for speaker again in 1979 and probably in 1981. A Sam Kinch, Jr., column in the March 19, 1977, issue of Dallas Morning News, "No room at the top for Clayton," suggests that Clayton wants to remain at the speaker's post until either the position of governor or lieutenant governor becomes vacant, something that's not likely until at least 1982. A later clipping quotes Clayton as saying he might run for state comptroller if incumbent Bob Bullock resigns because of health reasons. A July 28, 1978, Dallas Morning News article, "Clayton doesn't want Mahon's House seat," reports that Clayton has declined to enter the race to replace George Mahon, the West Texas congressman who has announced his retirement after 44 years in the Congress. A January 10, 1979, Dallas Times Herald headline reports, "Clayton easily wins third term as speaker." Clayton won the votes of all but nine of the 150 House members to win an unprecedented third consecutive term as speaker.

Scrapbook (2): 1980–1985. Clayton, Bill

Much of the scrapbook is dominated by the "Brilab" scandal. An undercover FBI agent, posing as a representative of the Prudential Insurance Company, gave a contribution at first reported to be $10,000 (but later reduced to $5,000) to Clayton supposedly in return for inside information on the state employee health insurance plan that Prudential could use to win the bid.

Clayton said that all he told the undercover agent was that if his company could help the state of Texas, he would be happy to see the company win the bid. Clayton said he had no intention of providing inside information to the agent nor had he promised to deliver the state insurance contract to Prudential. Other legislators immediately perceived the scandal as clouding Clayton's power as speaker and his prospects for re-election to the post in 1981, as reported in the February 10, 1980, Dallas Morning News story, "Lewis Seeks Clayton's 'Seconds' in Speaker's Race." The story quotes Fort Worth House Representative Gib Lewis as asking members to pledge that he was their second choice for speaker if Clayton should be forced out of the speaker's race.

The speaker, in the February 10, 1980, Dallas Times Herald story, "Clayton denies bribe, admits taking money," claims that the man who gave him "a stack of money" worth $10,000, was a past political supporter," a Deer Park labor leader named L.G. Moore, and Joseph Hauser, who claimed to represent Prudential. Clayton said he accepted the cash because he did not want to create a scene in front of Hauser that would embarrass Moore. He said that he instructed his administrative assistant, Rusty Kelly, to put the cash in an envelope and store it in a safe place so that the money could be returned to Moore the first time he came back to Clayton's office. The money, Clayton noted, had not been spent or deposited since Moore's visit.

Several news accounts from February 11 relate that Clayton never reported the contribution on any of the six detailed expenditure reports he filed during 1979. A February 12, 1980, Fort Worth Star-Telegram story, "Clayton $40,000 in debt to firm," reports that the speaker owes Prudential, the company at the heart of the bribery accusations, $40,000. Stories from mid-February report that a federal grand jury has begun a bribe probe related to the FBI sting operation and that two Houston city council members, James Westmoreland and Homer Ford, are also being investigated.

Rumors that the Brilab scandal was leading major lobbyists to abandon Clayton and find an alternative to potential reformist speaker candidate John Bryant of Dallas are detailed in a February 12, 1980, Dallas Times Herald story, "Lobbyists decide to 'hang loose' on speaker race." Other clippings from the period describe Clayton as losing grip on his speakership because of the scandal and quote the speaker as blaming a vaguely described "conspiracy" as responsible for the scandal.

The amount of the alleged bribe is reduced to $5,000, as reported in the February 13, 1980, Dallas Morning News story, "Clayton unveils cash, '$10,000' cut in half." A February 15, 1980, Dallas Morning News story, "FBI leaked '$10,000' to trap Clayton, associates believe," reports that Clayton aides theorize that the FBI intentionally leaked inaccurate information about the amount of money Moore gave to Clayton to trick the speaker into trying to return $10,000. The FBI could then announce that its undercover agent had given Clayton only $5,000 and that the speaker must have pocketed or spent the original money.

A February 19, 1980, Houston Post story, "$600,000 offered to Clayton, lawyer says," quotes a Clayton attorney as revealing that Joseph Hauser had offered $600,000 or $650,000 to Clayton and his "friends" in return for future "help." The reaction of a former House speaker to Clayton's problems is covered in a February 22, 1980, Victoria Advocate story, "Mutscher knows how Clayton feels." Mutscher tells a reporter, "I know what he's going through. It's your own private kind of hell."

Stories predicting a bleak political future for Clayton dominate coverage in early March 1980. Some stories ask if Brilab will play out like Sharptown and result in a major turnover in the state Legislature, followed by a wave of reform. Clayton resolves weeks of speculation when he announces that he, against the advice of his attorneys who advised him to invoke his Fifth Amendment rights, will testify before the federal grand jury in Houston. A March 6, 1980 Dallas Morning News headline reports, "Clayton won't seek speaker job if indicted."

Other stories from the first week of March quote Clayton as saying that a state tax increase might be necessary to take into account inflation. Stories from March 18, 1980, report that prosecutors grilled Clayton for seven hours before the grand jury and played excerpts from three conversations held between Clayton, Hauser, and Moore. Clayton is reported as being "calm and casual" during the entire appearance, not once invoking the Fifth Amendment, though one account describes him as quiet and weary upon leaving the grand jury room.

Clayton's legal expectations are laid out in the April 4, 1980, Dallas Morning News story, "Clayton team expects indictment." Clayton is quoted as saying that if it were up to the grand jury alone, there would be no problem, "but the justice department has a big stake in this case." One of Clayton's lawyers, who asked to not be identified, says that there was "bad stuff" on the tapes, but that's because Clayton's comments could be misconstrued. "Clayton told them in effect that he didn't want to talk about campaign contributions right then while he was working on their business," the lawyer is quoted as saying. But Clayton later says, "if they still wanted to make a campaign contribution after he had done whatever it was they wanted him to do, that was fine. But he didn't want to worry about it then." Subsequent stories quote Clayton as saying he will resign as speaker if he is not acquitted of charges by the fall of 1981 and note that Rep. Craig Washington of Houston was preparing to run for speaker if Clayton fell from power.

Stories from mid-June 1980 quote lobbyists, legislators, and other political insiders speculating that Clayton could not come back politically after being indicted on six criminal racketeering charges related to the Brilab investigation. Multiple clippings cover Clayton's trial starting in mid-September 1980. Papers report on the revelation that FBI informant Hauser had received leniency on two swindling convictions in exchange for cooperating with the Brilab investigation. Clayton's lawyers, apparently believing that Hauser had damaged his own credibility, choose to not cross-examine him during the trial.

Stories from late September 1980 report that tapes played during Clayton's trial reveal that he continued to seek favors from L. F. Moore even after receiving the $5,000 donation. Clayton's top aide Rusty Kelly testifies that he told Clayton that he had to return the money to Moore or report the cash on campaign finance forms but that Clayton never acted on that advice. During his testimony, Kelly called Clayton honest and said that, after he expressed concerns that Moore and Hauser were going to ask to see the bids from insurance companies competing with Prudential for the state employees insurance account, the speaker said, "We're not going to do that." Chip Holt, director of the secretary of state's campaign ethics section, further boosts Clayton's case when he testifies that there was no specific deadline by which Clayton had to report to the state the $5,000 donation. State comptroller Bob Bullock, testifying in Clayton's behalf, says that he would have handled the $5,000 donation in the same way.

Clayton's legal fate is announced in an October 25, 1980, Dallas Morning News headline, "Clayton acquitted in Brilab." The reaction of one member of the jury is reported in the October 23, 1980, Houston Post article, "Juror calls Clayton 'very honorable' man." The juror, Jimmy Haynes, tells reporters, "All along I wondered when they (government prosecutors) would get to something solid." An October 23, 1980, Dallas Morning News article, "Wooden stake gets to the heart of matter," captures Clayton's reaction to the acquittal. Two weeks before the trial began, United States Attorney Tony Canales spoke of his eagerness to "drive a stake through Billy Clayton's heart." After being found not guilty, Clayton sent Canales a wooden stake. On it were two plates, one with Canales' words and the other with a message that read, "Oh Lord, make my words tender and sweet today, for tomorrow I may have to eat them."

Subsequent stories speculate on Clayton's political future, quoting Clayton as predicting that he will win an unprecedented fourth term as speaker and announcing that he expects teachers to get a hefty pay raise in the next session. A November 7, 1980, Fort Worth Star-Telegram story, "Clayton support overwhelming," covers Clayton's success in keeping his leadership post. The story reports that Clayton has received 98 pledges of support for the speakership, well over the number he needs to be re-elected. Stories from late November 1980 note that Clayton sill hopes to get a state water plan approved by the Legislature and as 1981 begins include speculation that the speaker might change his mind and seek a fifth term. He reveals his plans for his political future in a February 24, 1981 Houston Post article, "Clayton says he won't run for House again." Clayton states that he might seek a statewide office in 1982, however. House Rep. Gib Lewis announced that he was hoping to sew up the election as Clayton's successor by the end of that week.

A December 4, 1981, Wichita Falls Record News item, "Bill Clayton announces bid," reports that Clayton intends to run for state land commissioner in 1982. Austin attorney Gary Mauro is the only other announced candidate.

Sam Attlesey slams the Billy Clayton biography written by Jimmy Banks, "Gavels, Grit and Glory," in the January 10, 1982, Dallas Morning News review, "Billy Clayton, Texas 'good old boy." Attlesey dismisses the book as corny puffery. The Dallas Morning News covers Clayton's sudden decision to not run for land commissioner in its January 26, 1982 story, "Clayton move no shock to friends." The story notes that although Clayton had amassed a $250,000 campaign chest, he considered the land commissioner's post a step down from speaker of the house and had little enthusiasm for waging a campaign for the office. Clayton will legally be able to take home to his West Texas farm about $300,000 in unused campaign contributions, reports the Dallas Morning News in its January 26, 1982 story, "State law lets Clayton keep contributions." Several stories from late October 1982 report that Clayton, though still nominally a Democrat, "favors" Republican Gov. Bill Clements for re-election against Democratic nominee Mark White.

A March 29, 1984, Victoria Advocate story, "Ex-House Speaker Contributes Papers," reports that Clayton has donated his personal papers to Texas A&M's Sterling C. Evans Library. The story notes that the collection is contained in 280 boxes and includes correspondence, speeches, governmental reports, videotapes of legislative sessions and gavels used by Clayton during his speakership. A January 18, 1985, Bryan College Station Eagle story, "Clayton may try to unseat White in '86," reports that Clayton may challenge the Democratic governor running as a Republican. A July 14, 1985, Victoria Advocate article, "Clayton Makes Switch to GOP," reports on Clayton's announcement that he is now a Republican and that he will not run for governor in 1986 because he has to devote more attention to his farming and ranching properties in Springlake.

Vertical File: Clayton, Bill

The file contains a random assortment of stories, some included in the scrapbooks, covering his political and post-political career from 1974 to 1997. Included are two copies of a September 20, 1974, issue of the Texas Observer, which includes a lengthy analysis of Clayton's record as a legislator and how he came to be the favored candidate for House Speaker titled "The Little Prince." Describing his legislative career, the liberal Observer states that Clayton's "record is more reactionary than it is conservative—it is anti-labor, anti-urban, anti-reform, anti-progress and anti-human concern." The Observer notes that Clayton voted against a minimum wage bill in 1969 declaring, "I am not only against this bill, but I would be against a minimum wage of five cents an hour." The Observer reminds readers that Clayton vigorously pushed a bill that would have allowed banks to charge an interest rate of more than 20 percent on the first $1,000 of a consumer installment loan. He also vehemently opposed bilingual education past the third grade, and spoke against a House resolution commending labor leader Cesar Chavez.

The publication accuses Clayton of conflict of interest because the speaker candidate worked for a private water development group while pushing for water legislation in the House. The newspaper concludes that liberals, charmed by Clayton's pleasant personality and bitter about speaker candidate Carl Parker's actions as a spy for Gus Mutscher during liberal caucuses planning strategy for unseating the former speaker, had irresponsibly opened the door to a Clayton speakership.

A January 22, 1978, Dallas Morning News Scene magazine cover story, "Billy Clayton and the Promised Land," portrays Clayton as a cunning horse-trader whose lack of outward polish conceals a careful, strategic mind. The Peggy Nichols story speculates whether these traits will carry Clayton to the governor's mansion in 1982.

An October 10, 1990, Austin American-Statesman feature, "Clayton's vineyards provide private label, diversity," describes Clayton's farm where alongside "fields of popcorn, wheat and soybean, 100 acres of Chardonnay, riesling and chenin blanc grapes twine up row after row of metal post trellises." The story notes that Clayton has become one of the state's 250 wine grape growers and quotes the state's Department of Agriculture, which predicts that Texas wine grape production will increase from 600,000 tons in 1990 to 4.8 million in 2000. An August 8, 1997, Daily Texan article, "Clayton recovers from quadruple bypass surgery," reports on the former speaker's health problems.

Audiotape:

Bill Clayton Interview, 2004.

Interview with Bill Clayton in his Austin office conducted by Dr. Michael Phillips of the Texas House Speakers Oral History Project. The interview covers Clayton's childhood in Springlake, his experiences as an undergraduate at Texas A&M University, his time as a Lyndon Johnson delegate to the 1960 Democratic National Convention, and his views of politicians such as Lyndon Johnson, John Kennedy, House Speaker Byron Tunnell, and Governor John Connally. He discusses his first race for the Texas House of Representatives, his involvement in water issues for West Texas, and the impact of lobbyists and campaign contributions on Texas politics. He also describes his first race for the speakership and his efforts to modernize the state government. Much of the interview centers on Clayton's reaction to his indictment during the Brilab investigation and the aftermath of his acquittal.

Audio. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.
Transcript of interview. Center for American History Copy 1. Use in library only.

Prints and Photographs Collection: (Briscoe Center for American History)

An official portrait of Clayton from his speakership.

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