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African American History Resources - detail of Lucia J. Knotts Rhone, Rhone Family Papers

African American History Resources
Race Relations and Cultural Identity

Abrahams, Roger D. Positively Black. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970).

__________. Talking Black. (Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers, 1976).

Additional Testimony Relating to the Brownsville Affray Taken by Hon. Milton D. Purdy, Assistant to the Attorney-General of the United States, and Maj. Augustus P. Blocksom, Inspector-General's Department, United States Army. (Washington: GPO, 1907).

Ainslie, Ricardo C. Long Dark Road: Bill King and Murder in Jasper, Texas. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004).

Akers, Monte. Flames After Midnight: Murder, Vengeance, and the Desolation of a Texas Community. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999) [Kirvin, TX]

Alexander, Rosalind, "Houston's Hidden History: In 1917 Black Soldiers Marched in Rage and Took Their Secrets to the Grave," Texas Observer 81, no. 7 (April 7, 1989).

Allison, Albert A. To Defy the Monster. (New York: iUniverse, 2005).

Atkinson, Mary Jourdan. Creolism and Racism on the Gulf Coast. (Houston: Roots, 1977).

Avery, James S. The Nature and the Neighborhood; before the 3rd Annual Banquet of the Baytown Human Relations Council, Baytown, Texas, February 10, 1967. (Houston: Humble Oil & Refining Co., Public Relations Dept., 1967).

Barrera, Mario. Race and Class in the Southwest: A Theory of Racial Inequality. (Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press, 1979).

Baugh, John. Black Street Speech: Its History, Structure, and Survival. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983).

__________. Out of the Mouths of Slaves: African American Language and Educational Malpractice. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999).

Benjamin, Robert C. O. Southern Outrages; a Statistical Record of Lawless Doings. (Los Angeles, 1894).

Bennett, Lerone. Confrontation: Black and White. Foreword by A. Philip Randolph. (Chicago: Johnson Publ. Co., 1965).

Bernstein, Patricia. The First Waco Horror: The Lynching of Jesse Washington and the Rise of the NAACP. (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2005).

Berson, Lenora E. The Negroes and the Jews. (New York: Random House, 1971).

Beyond Black and White: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in the U. S. South and Southwest. Ed. Stephanie Cole and Alison M. Parker. (College Station: Published for the University of Texas at Arlington by Texas A & M University Press, 2004).

Bigelow, John. Garrison Tangles in the Friendless Tenth: The Journal of First Lieutenant John Bigelow, Jr., Fort Davis, Texas. (Ed., with and introd. by Douglas C. McChristian. (Bryan, TX: J. M. Carroll, 1985).

Blackshear, Edward L. Future of the Negro; The Race Problem Discussed. A Revision of an Address to the Colored Teacher's Institute, Cameron, Milam County, TX, November 18, 1898. (Cameron, TX, 1898).

A Book about Texas. By Texans. (Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1931).

Borders, Gary B. A Hanging in Nacogdoches: Murder, Race, Politics, and Polemics in Texas’s Oldest Town, 1870-1916. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006).

Brick, Blanche H., "William Morris Ford, Pastor of First Baptist Church, Longview Texas, and the Southern Baptist View of Race Relations, 1945–1971," East Texas Historical Journal 41, no. 1 (2003).

Brooks, James. Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Borderlands. (Chapel Hill, NC: Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, VA, by the University of North Carolina Press, 2002).

Brophy, William J., "They Fought the Good Fight: Black Legacies of Struggle and Triumph in Texas," Texas Journal of Ideas, History, and Culture 14, no. 2 (Spring/Summer, 1992).

Buchanan, James P. The Anti-lynching Bill … Speech of Hon. James P. Buchanan of Texas in the House of Representatives, December 17, 1921. (Washington, DC: GPO, 1922).

Burned for His Crime: Vengeance with Fire Visited upon the Paris Rapist: Horrible Crime Published in an Extraordinary Manner: Father of the Innocent Little Victim Tortures Her Outrager in the Presence of Thousands: Frightful Struggles of the Seared Body in the Flames. (Atlanta, TX: Atlanta Express, 1893).

Burr, Beverly. History of Student Activism at the University of Texas at Austin, 1960–1988. (Student paper, University of Texas, 1988).

Burran, James A., "Violence in an 'Arsenal of Democracy': The Beaumont Race Riot, 1943," East Texas Historical Journal 14, no. 1 (Spring, 1976).

Butler, Melvin A. A Vocabulary Study of Negroes in Austin, Texas. (Austin: [Thesis, University of Texas] 1962).

Cady, Melissa Ruiz. Unveiling the Injustice: The Barbara Smith Controversy. Unpublished research paper. (University of Texas at Austin, 1996).

Cain, Jerry B., "The Thought and Action of Some Early Texas Baptists Concerning the Negro," East Texas Historical Journal 13, no. 1 (Spring, 1975).

Cantrell, Gregg. Feeding the Wolf: John B. Raynes and the Politics of Race, 1850–1918. (Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 2001).

Carrigan, William D. The Making of a Lynching Culture: Violence and Vigilantism in Central Texas, 1836-1916. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2004).

Carroll, Mark M. Homesteads Ungovernable: Families, Sex, Race, and the Law in Frontier Texas, 1823–1860. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001).

Chery, Gale H., "Ordinary People," D Magazine 8, no. 6 (June, 1981).

Christian, Garna L. Black Soldiers in Jim Crow Texas, 1899–1917. (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1995).

__________, "The Brownsville Raid's 168th Man: The Court Martial of Corporal Knowles," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 93, no. 1 (July, 1989).

__________, "The El Paso Racial Crisis of 1900," in The African American Experience in Texas: An Anthology. Ed. by Bruce A. Glasrud and James M. Smallwood. (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2007).

__________, "The El Paso Racial Crisis of 1900," Red River Valley Historical Review 6, no. 2 (Spring, 1981).

__________, "Rio Grande City: Prelude to the Brownsville Raid," West Texas Historical Association Year Book 57 (1981).

__________, "The Twenty-Fifth Regiment at Fort McIntosh: Precursor to Retaliatory Racial Violence," West Texas Historical Association Year Book 55 (1979).

__________, "The Violent Possibility: The Tenth Cavalry at Texarkana," East Texas Historical Journal 23, no. 1 (Spring, 1985).

Clark, Joe L., "The Effect of the World War upon the National Spirit of the Colored Peoples," Southwestern Political and Social Science Quarterly 4, no. 2 (September, 1923).

Coke, Richard. The Killing of Joseph Hoffman, Washington County, Texas: Speech of Hon. Richard Coke, of Texas, in the United States Senate, September 12, 1888. (Washington, 1888).

Collof, Pamela, "Jasper," Texas Monthly 31, no. 12 (December, 2003).

Corbett, Michael, "Changes in Racial Attitudes among Southerners," Texas Journal of Political Studies 15, no. 2 (Spring/Summer, 1993).

Criminal Justice Trends in Texas: Overview by Race. (Austin: Criminal Justice Policy Council, 1992).

Davies, Nick. White Lies: Rape, Murder, and Justice, Texas Style. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1991).

Davis, Rod, "Race against Time," D 19, no. 8 (August, 1992).

Delaney, David. Race, Place, and the Law, 1836-1948. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998).

Digby, Vera B. A Study of Teachers' Attitudes toward Desegregation of Texas Public Schools. (Austin: [Thesis, University of Texas] 1955).

Dixon, Thomas. The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan. Illus. by Arthur I. Keller. (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1905).

Dorau, Angela Armendáriz, "Of Soldiers, Racism, and Mutiny: The 1917 Camp Logan Riot and Court Martial," Heritage 16, no. 2 (Spring, 1998).

Durham, Kenneth R., "The Longview Race Riot of 1919," East Texas Historical Journal 18, no. 2 (1980).

Eichstedt, Jennifer L. Representations of Slavery: Race and Ideology in Southern Plantation Museums. (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002).

English, Linda, "Recording Race: General Stores and Race in the Late Nineteenth-Century Southwest," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 110, no. 2 (October, 2006).

Evans, Frank K. A Plea to President Roosevelt. (Eastland, TX? 1935?). [Poem]

The Facts in the Case of the Horrible Murder of Little Myrtle Vance and Its Fearful Expiation at Paris, Texas, February 1st, 1893. With photographic illustrations. (Paris, TX: Publ. by P. L. James, 1893). [photocopy]

Ferguson, Judith E., "Building Racial Understanding in East Texas," Texas Journal of Ideas, History, and Culture 14, no. 2 (Spring/Summer, 1992).

Foley, Neil. The New South in the Southwest: Anglos, Blacks, and Mexicans in Central Texas, 1880–1930. (Ann Arbor, MI: [Dissertation, University of Michigan] 1990).

Foraker, Joseph B. The Black Battalion: Speeches of Hon. Joseph B. Foraker of Ohio, in the Senate of the United States, January 3, 16, and 17, 1907. (Washington, DC, 1907).

__________. A Review of the Testimony in the Brownsville Investigation. (United States? 1908).

Frederickson, George M. The Black Image in the White Mind; the Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817–1914. (New York: Harper and Row, 1971).

Gaston, Paul M. The New South Creed: A Study in Southern Mythmaking. (New York: Knopf, 1970).

Gilmore, Al-Tony. Bad N-----! The National Impact of Jack Johnson. (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1975).

Glasrud, Bruce A., "Child or Beast?: White Texas' View of Blacks, 1900–1910," East Texas Historical Journal 15, no. 2 (1977).

__________, "Enforcing White Supremacy in Texas, 1900-1910," Red River Valley Historical Review 4, no. 4 (Fall, 1979).

Goldberg, Robert A., "Racial Change on the Southern Periphery: The Case of San Antonio, Texas, 1960–1965," Journal of Southern History 49, no. 3 (August, 1983).

Grady, Henry W. Grady's Great Speech at Dallas, Texas, October 27th, 1888, on the Future of the Two Races: What the South Owes the Negro, and What His Place in Progress Should Be: The Wonderful Possibilities of the South. (New Orleans: Hopkins Printing Office, 1889).

Graggs, Charles R. Segregation – Absurd and Wrong; Answer [to] the Dallas News Editorial [of] July 9, 1953. (Dallas: Dallas Star Post Pub. Co., 1953).

__________. Two Open Letters to Governor Allan Shivers. (Dallas: Printed by Star Post Publishing Co., 1955).

Green, Ely. Ely: Too Black, Too White. Ed. by Elizabeth N. & Arthur Ben Chitty. (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1970).

Griffin, John Howard. Black Like Me. 2. ed., with a new epilogue by the author. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977).

__________, and Theodore Freeman. Mansfield, Texas: A Report of the Crisis Situation Resulting from Efforts to Desegregate the School System. (New York: Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 1957?).

Guinn, Jeff. Our Land Before We Die: The Proud Story of the Seminole Negro. (New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 2002).

Gussow, Adam, "'Where Is the Love': Racial Violence, Racial Healing, and Blues Communities," Southern Cultures 12, no. 4 (Winter 2006).

Hall, Josie (Briggs). Hall's Moral and Mental Capsule for the Economic and Domestic Life of the Negro, as a Solution of the Race Problem. (Dallas: Rev. R. S. Jenkins, 1905).

Hartley, Margaret L., "Black Boundaries in Big Texas," Southwest Review 37, no. 1 (Winter, 1952).

Haynes, Robert V., "The Houston Mutiny and Riot of 1917," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 76, no. 4 ( April, 1973).

__________. A Night of Violence: The Houston Riot of 1917. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976).

__________, "Unrest at Home: Racial Conflict between Civilians and Black Soldiers in 1917," Journal of the American Studies Association of Texas 6 (1975).

Haywood, Harry. Lynching. (New York: International Publishers, 1932).

Hernández, Marie Theresa. Cemeteries of Ambivalent Desire: Unearthing Deep South Narratives from a Texas Graveyard. (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2008).

Herskovits, Melville J., "Acculturation and the American Negro," Southwestern Political and Social Science Quarterly 8, no. 3 (December, 1927).

Higley, Laura C., The Texan, Man of Many Faces. Illus. Tony Bell, Carolita Perkins. (Austin: Dissemination Center for Bilingual Bicultural Education, 1973?).

Hines, Mary Elizabeth, Death at the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Geography of Lynching in the Deep South, 1882 to 1910. (Ann Arbor, MI: U. M. I. Research Update, 1992).

Hobson, Fred C., But Now I See: The White Southern Racist Conversion Narrative. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999).

The Houston Riots and Courts-martial of 1917. (San Antonio: Carver Community Cultural Center in cooperation with the University of Texas Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio, 1990?).

Jacobson, Melanie, "Triangular Relationships: How Three Races Related to Each Other in Central Texas Prior to the Civil War," Texas Historian 58, no. 4 (May, 1998).

Jordan-Bychkov, Terry G., "Germans and Blacks in Texas, " in States of Progress: Germans and Blacks in America over 300 Years. Ed. Randall M. Miller. (Philadelphia, PA: German Society of Pennsylvania, 1989).

Justice, Blair. Houston: The "Sead" Factors of Unrest. (Austin: Hogg Foundation for Mental Health, 1969).

_________. Violence in the City. (Fort Worth: Leo Potishman Fund, 1969).

Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. (New York: Atheneum, 1986).

Kenny, Steve, "The Struggle for Power," D Magazine 8, no. 6 (June, 1981).

Kilgore, Linda E. The Ku Klux Klan and the Press in Texas, 1920–1927. (Austin: [Thesis, University of Texas] 1964).

Killens, John O. Black Man's Burden. (New York: Trident Press, 1965).

King, Larry L. Confessions of a White Racist. (New York: Viking Press, 1971).

Kirby, Jack T., "The Southern Exodus, 1910–1960: A Primer for Historians," Journal of Southern History 49, no. 4 (November, 1983).

Kuhr, Nancy Jane N. Segregated Public Schools in Texas, 1876-1940. (Austin: [Thesis, University of Texas at Austin] 1974).

Lacy, Leslie A. The Rise and Fall of a Proper Negro; an Autobiography. (New York: Macmillan, 1970).

Lamkin, Patricia E., "Black in San Angelo: Relations Between Fort Concho and the City, 1875–1889," West Texas Historical Association Year Book 66 (1990).

Lane, Ann J. The Brownsville Affair: National Crisis and Black Reaction. (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1971).

Lanehart, Sonia L. Sista, Speak!: Black Women Kinfolk Talk about Language and Literacy. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002).

Law, Robert A. A Note on Four Negro Words. (Austin: Texas Folk-lore Society, 1927).

Life Style in the Black Ghetto. By William McCord, et al. (New York: Norton, 1969). [Houston]

Litwack, Leon F. Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. (New York: Knopf, 1998).

Livingston, David William. The Lynching of Negroes in Texas, 1900–1925. (Commerce: [Thesis, East Texas State University] 1972).

McKenzie, Fred, "The Kellyville Incident," East Texas Historical Journal 37, no. 1 (1999).

McNeill, Robert B. God Wills Us Free: The Ordeal of a Southern Minister. (New York: Hill and Wang, 1965).

Martin, Lois Anne. Blaming the Victim: President Theodore Roosevelt and the Lynching Question, 1901–1906. (Austin: [Thesis, University of Texas at Austin] 1987).

Mindiola, Tatcho, Yolanda Flores Niemann, and Néstor Rodríguez. Black-Brown Relations and Stereotypes. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002).

Minnis, Mhyra S., and A. Perry McWilliams. Tornado: The Voice of the People in Disaster and After, a Study in Residential Integration. (Lubbock: Texas Tech University, 1971).

Morris, Willie. The South Today, 100 Years after Appomatox. (New York: Harper & Row, 1965).

Morrison, Gayle. To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America. (Wilmette, IL: Baha'i Pub. Trust, 1982).

Murphy, Edgar Gardner. The White Man and the Negro at the South: An Address Delivered under Invitation of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. (S. l.: S. n., 1900).

Murray, Peter C. Methodists and the Crucible of Race, 1930–1975. (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2004).

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The Mobbing of John R. Shillady, Secretary of the N. A. A. C. P., at Austin, Texas. (New York: The Association, 1919).

Nevels, Cynthia S. Lynching to Belong: Claiming Whiteness through Racial Violence. (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2007).

Newby, Idus A., ed. The Development of Segregationist Thought. (Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press, 1968).

__________. Jim Crow's Defense; Anti-Negro Thought in America, 1900-1930. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1965).

Nolen, Claude H. African American Southerners in Slavery, Civil War, and Reconstruction. (Jeffesron, NC: McFarland, 2001).

__________. The Negro's Image in the South; the Anatomy of White Supremacy. (Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1967).

Norris, Hoke. We Dissent. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1962).

Obadele-Starks, Ernest, "Black Texans and Theater Craft Unionism: The Struggle for Racial Equality," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 106, no. 4 (April, 2003).

Ohler, George, "Background and Causes of the Longview Race Riot of July 10, 1919," Journal of the American Studies Association of Texas 12 (1981).

Olsen, Allen O., "The Post-World War II 'Chitlin' Circuit' in San Antonio and the Long-Term Effects of Intercultural Congeniality," Journal of Texas Music History 7 (2007).

Olson, James S., and Sharon Phair. "The Anatomy of a Race Riot: Beaumont, Texas, 1943," Texana 11, no. 1 (Winter, 1973).

Pennington, Richard. Breaking the Ice: The Racial Integration of Southwest Conference Football. (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1987).

__________, "Orange & White (& Black)," Third Coast 5, no. 2 (September, 1985). [Integration of UT football]

Phillips, Edward H., "The Sherman Courthouse Riot of 1930," East Texas Historical Journal 25, no. 2 (1987).

Phillips, Joseph M. The Fire This Time: The Battle over Racial, Regional, and Religious Identities in Dallas, Texas, 1860-1990. (Austin: [Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin] 2002).

Phillips, Michael. White Metropolis: Race, Ethnicity, and Religion in Dallas, 1841–2001. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006).

Porter, Kenneth W. The Black Seminoles: History of a Freedom-seeking People. (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1996).

Rabe, Elizabeth R. "African American Doughboys: Victory in France, Defeat in Dallas," Texas Historian 58, no. 1 (September, 1997).

Rabinowitz, Howard N., "From Exclusion to Segregation: Southern Race Relations, 1865-1890," Journal of American History 63, no. 2 (September, 1976).

__________. Race Relations in the Urban South, 1865–1890. (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1980).

Robinson, Charles F., II, "Legislated Love in the Lone Star State: Texas and Miscegenation," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 108, no. 1 (July, 2004).

Rogan, Paul J. Time Orientation of Young Male First Offenders as a Function of Period of Imprisonment and Race. (Huntsville, TX: San Houston State University, Inst. of Contemporary Corrections and the Behavioral Sciences, 1975).

Ross, Joseph. Of Human Resources and the South. (Dallas, 1950). Repr. from Southwest Review (Autumn, 1950).

Sanders, John B. Hangings in Shelby County, Texas. (Center, TX, 1966).

Sapper, Neil, "Black Culture in Urban Texas: A Lone Star Renaissance," Red River Valley Historical Review 6, no. 2 (Spring, 1981).

Scott, Alfred M. Synopsis of the Unfinished Manuscript of a Book to Be Entitled, Racial Segregation in the U. S. A., History, Law, Fact. (Austin, TX: A. M. Scott, 1957).

Selcer, Richard F., "Black Sheep Jeff Daggett," in his Fort Worth Characters. (Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2009).

Shands, Sheila S. Fulbright. Open Housing; a Study of the Opposition in Austin, Texas. (Austin: [Report, University of Texas at Austin] 1969).

Sheppard, Morris. The Antilynching Bill. Speech of Hon. Morris Sheppard of Texas, in the Senate of the United States, Thursday, January 27, 1938. (Washington: Gov. Print. Off., 1938).

Simmons, Thomas E. Who's Shooting Firecrackers?: The "Riot" at Fort Ringgold, Texas. (Grand Prairie, TX: T. E. Simmons, 1996).

Simond, Ada DeBlanc, "The Discovery of Being Black: A Recollection," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 76, no. 4 (April, 1973).

Sitkoff, Harvard, "Racial Militancy and Interracial Violence in the Second World War," Journal of American History 58, no. 3 (December, 1971).

Sivad, Doug. The Black Seminole Indians of Texas. (Boston, MA: American Press, 1984).

Sorelle, James M., "The 'Waco Horror': The Lynching of Jesse Washington," in The African American Experience in Texas: An Anthology. Ed. by Bruce A. Glasrud and James M. Smallwood. (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2007).

__________, "The Waco Horror: The Lynching of Jesse Washington," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 86, no. 4 (April, 1983).

Southern Negro Women and Race Cooperation. Southern Negro Women and Race Cooperation. (S. l.: Southeastern Federation of Negro Women’s Clubs, 1921?).

Southern Poverty Law Center. Ku Klux Klan: A History of Racism and Violence. (Montgomery, AL: Southern Poverty Law Center, 1991).

Southern Society for the Promotion of the Study of Race Conditions and Problems in the South. Race Problems of the South; Report of the Proceedings of the First Annual Conference Held under the Auspices of the Southern Society for the Promotion of the Study of Race Conditions and Problems in the South, at Montgomery, Alabama, May 8, 9, 10, AD 1900. (Richmond, VA: B. F. Johnson Publishing Company, 1900).

Spong, John, "Pug," Texas Monthly 33, no. 5 (May, 2005). [Maurice 'Pug' Scott, Austin, TX]

Stein, Bill, "Colorado County Protects Womanhood: The Murder of Geraldine Kollman and the Subsequent Lynching of the Accused," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 108, no. 4 (April, 2005).

Sturdevant, Paul E., "Black and White with Shades of Gray: The Greenville Sign," East Texas Historical Journal 42, no. 1 (2004).

TSU Meets the Press: White Newspaper Coverage of a Black University in Houston, Texas, 1947–1987. Comp. by E. Bun Lee. (Houston: D. Armstrong, 1989).

Tarver, Harold M. An Epoch Signalized by Race Emigration; the Race Loses by Quitting the South. (San Antonio, 1900).

Temple-Raston, Dina. A Death in Texas: A Story of Race, Murder, and a Small Town's Struggle for Redemption. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2002). [Jasper, TX]

Thompson, Brian, "Justice?" Texas Historian 52, no. 2 (November, 1991). [John Earl Reese murder, Mayflower, TX]

Tolnay, Stewart E., E. M. Beck, and James L. Massey, "Black Competition and White Vengeance: Legal Execution of Blacks as Social Control in the Cotton South, 1890 to 1929," Social Science Quarterly 73, no. 3 (September, 1992).

Trulson, Chad R., and James W. Marquart. First Available Cell: Desegregation of the Texas Prison System. Foreword by Ben M. Crouch. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2009

U. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Military Affairs. Affray at Brownsville, Texas. 6v. (Washington: Govt. Printing Office, 1908).

_____. _____. _____. _____. The Brownsville Affray … Report. (Washington: Govt. Printing Office, 1908).

U. S. War Department. The Brownsville Affray: Report of the Inspector General. (Washington, D. C.: [s. n.] 1908).

_____. _____. Summary Discharge or Mustering Out of Regiments or Companies. Message from the President … Transmitting a Report from the Secretary of War, together with Several Documents (and Additional Testimony in the Brownsville Case). 2v (Washington: Govt. Printing Office, 1906–1907).

_____. _____. Inspector General's Office. Affray at Brownsville, Texas, August 13 and 14, 1906: Investigation of the Conduct of United States Troops (Companies B, C, and D, Twenty-fifth Infantry) Stationed at Fort Brown, Texas: Reports of Augustus P. Blocksom, Leonard A. Lovering, [and] Ernest A. Garlington (of the Inspector General's Dept.). (Washington: Govt. Printing Office, 1906).

_____. _____. The Brownsville Affray. Report of the Inspector General of the Army; Order of the President Discharging Enlisted Men of Companies B, C, and D, Twenty-fifth Infantry; Messages of the President to the Senate; and Majority and Minority Reports of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs. (Washington: Govt. Printing Office, 1908).

Vandiver, Frank E. The Southerner as Extremist. (United States, 1964?).

Volanto, Keith J., "Up in Arms: Local Protest vs. Placement of Black CCC Camps in West Texas," West Texas Historical Association Year Book 83 (October, 2007).

Watson, Dwight D. "In the Name of Decency and Progress: The Response of Houston’s Civic Leaders to the Lynching of Robert Powell in 1928," Houston Review of History and Culture 1, no. 2 (Summer, 2004).

__________. Race and the Houston Police Department, 1930–1990: A Change Did Come. (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2005).

Weatherbee, Bo., "Breaking the Racial Barrier: One Man's Influence on a Community," Texas Historian 62, no. 1 (September, 2001). [W. Henry Govan, Rotan, TX]

Weaver, John Downing. The Brownsville Raid. Foreword by Lewis L. Gould. (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1992, c1970).

__________. Exoneration: Based on the Brownsville Raid (1970) and The Senator and the Sharecropper's Son (1997). (New York: Wendy Schmalz, Harold Obers Associates, 1999).

__________. Exoneration: Notes for Revision. (S.l., 1994). [Brownsville riot, 1906]

__________. The Senator and the Sharecropper's Son: Exoneration of the Brownsville Soldiers. (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1997).

Weinstein, Allen, and Frank O. Gatell, eds. The Segregation Era, 1863–1964; a Modern Reader. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970).

Whittier, Julius, "The Last Bastion," in The Texas Book: Profiles, History, and Reminiscences of the University. Ed. by Richard A. Holland. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006).

Williams, Frederick. An Analysis of the Variations from Standard English Pronunciation in the Phonetic Performance of Two Groups of Nonstandard-English-speaking Children: Final Report. (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Bureau of Research, 1971).

Williams, Jamye C., and McDonald Williams, eds. The Negro Speaks: The Rhetoric of Contemporary Black Leaders. (New York: Noble and Noble, 1970).

Williams, Melissa, "An Angry Encounter: The Camp Logan Riot," Texas Historian 53, no. 1 (September, 1992).

Wilson, William H., "Growing Up Black in East Texas: Some Twentieth-Century Experiences," East Texas Historical Journal 32, no. 1 (1994).

Wintz, Cary D., "The Struggle for Dignity: African Americans in the Twentieth Century," in Twentieth-Century Texas: A Social and Cultural History. Ed. by John W. Storey and Mary L. Kelley. (Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2008).

Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America. By James Allen, Hamilton Als, John Lewis, and Leon F. Litwack. (Santa Fe: Twin Palms, 2000).

Witt, Sharon K. School Integration and Racial Prejudice. (Austin: [Report, University of Texas at Austin] 1970). [Austin, TX]

Woodtor, Dee P. Finding a Place Called Home: A Guide to African-American Genealogy and Historical Identity. (New York: Random House, 1999).

Woodward, C. Vann. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. 2. ed. rev. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966).

Work, David, "United States Colored Toops in Texas during Reconstruction, 1865–1867," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 109, no. 3 (January, 2006).

Yates, Donald L. Correlates of Attitudes toward the Police: A Comparison of Black and White Citizens in Austin, Texas. (Austin: [Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin] 1984).

Zinn, Howard. The Southern Mystique. (New York: Knopf, 1964).