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The African American West: A Century of Short Stories. Ed. Bruce Glasrud and Laurie Champion. (Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 2000).

African Americans on the Western Frontier. Ed. with an introd. by Monroe Lee Billington and Roger D. Hardaway. (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1998).

Amos, Preston E. Above and Beyond in the West: Black Medal of Honor Winners, 1870–1890. (Washington: Potomac Corral, the Westerners, 1974).

Bigelow, John. Garrison Tangles in the Friendless Tenth: The Journal of First Lieutenant John Bigelow, Jr., Fort Davis, Texas. (Ed., with an introd. by Douglas C. McChristian. (Bryan, TX: J. M. Carroll, 1985).

Billington, Monroe, "Civilians and Black Soldiers in New Mexico Territory, 1866–1900: A Cross-Cultural Experience," Military History of the Southwest 19, no. 1 (Spring, 1989).

__________. New Mexico's Buffalo Soldiers, 1866–1900. (Niwot, CO: University of Colorado Press, 1991).

Black Cowboys of Texas. Ed. Sara R. Massey. Introd. Alwyn Barr. (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2000).

Bluthardt, Robert F., "The Buffalo Soldiers at Fort Concho, 1869–1885," Texas Heritage (Spring, 2002).

Britten, Thomas A., "The Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts in the Big Bend," Journal of Big Bend Studies 5 (January, 1993).

Burton, Arthur T. Black, Buckskin, and Blue: African American Scouts and Soldiers on the Western Frontier. (Austin: Eakin Press, 1999).

__________. Black, Red, and Deadly: Black and Indian Gunfighters of the Indian Territory, 1870–1907. (Austin: Eakin Press, 1991).

Butler, Anne M., "Still in Chains: Black Women in Western Prisons, 1865–1910," Western Historical Quarterly 20, no. 1 (February, 1989).

Carlson, Paul H. The Buffalo Soldier Tragedy of 1877. (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2003).

__________, "William R. Shafter, Black Troops, and the Finale to the Red River War," Red River Valley Historical Review 3, no. 2 (Spring, 1978).

__________, "William R. Shafter, Black Troops, and the Opening of the Llano Estacado," Panhandle-Plains Historical Review 47, (1974).

__________, “William R. Shafter: Commanding Black Troops in West Texas,” in The African American Experience in Texas: An Anthology. Ed. by Bruce A. Glasrud and James M. Smallwood. (Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2007).

Carroll, H. Bailey. Nolan's "Lost Nigger" Expedition of 1877. (Austin, 1940). Repr. from Southwestern Historical Quarterly 44, no. 1 (July, 1940).

Carroll, John M. The U. S. Army Military History Research Collection Presents John M. Carroll's Collection: Illustrations of the Black Soldier in the West. (S. l.: s. n., 1973?)

__________, comp. The Black Military Experience in the West. (New York: Liveright, 1971).

__________, comp. Buffalo Soldiers West. (Fort Collins, CO: Old Army Press, 1971).

Christian, Garna L., "Adding Fort Bliss to Black Military Historiography," West Texas Historical Association Year Book 54 (1978).

__________, "The Brownsville Raid's 168th Man: The Court-Martial of Corporal Knowles," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 93, no. 1 (July, 1989).

Crane, R. C., "D. W. Wallace ('80 John'); a Negro Cattleman on the Texas Frontier," West Texas Historical Association Year Book 28 (October, 1952).

Davison, Don, "Buffalo Soldiers of Fort Davis," Texas Parade 31, no. 1 (June, 1970).

"Death of D. W. Wallace ['80 John']," Cattleman 25, no. 11 (April, 1939).

De Angelis, Gina. The Black Cowboys. (Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 1998).

Dinges, Bruce J., "The San Angelo Riot of 1881: The Army, Race Relations, and Settlement on the Texas Frontier," Journal of the West 41, no. 3 (Summer, 2002).

Dobak, William A., "Black Regulars Speak," Panhandle-Plains Historical Review 47, no. ? (1974).

Downey, Fairfax D. The Buffalo Soldiers in the Indian Wars. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969).

Durham, Phillip., and Edward L. Jones. The Adventures of the Negro Cowboys. (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1966).

Fleming, Elvis E., "Captain Nicholas Nolan: Lost on the Staked Planes," Texana 4, no. 1 (Spring, 1966).

__________, "Old Black Add: from the LFD," True West 41, no. 8 (August, 1994). [Add Jones]

Flipper, Henry Ossian. Negro Frontiersman: The Western Memoirs of Henry O. Flipper, First Negro Graduate of West Point. Ed. with an introd. by Theodore D. Harris. (El Paso: Texas Western College Press, 1963).

Fowler, Arlen L. The Black Infantry in the West, 1869–1891. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Pub. Corp., 1971).

Franco, John K., "Blacks in Northern New Spain," Journal of Big Bend Studies 16 (2004).

Franklin, Jimmie Lewis. Journey toward Hope: A History of Blacks in Oklahoma. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982).

Glasrud, Bruce, comp. African Americans in the West: A Bibliography of Secondary Sources. (Alpine: Sul Ross State University, Center for Big Bend Studies, 1998).

Glass, Edward L. N., ed. The History of the Tenth Cavalry, 1866–1921. (Tucson: Acme Printing Co., 1921).

Green, Nonie, "A Military Biography of Alfred C. Markley," Fort Concho and the South Plains Journal 23, no. 2 (Spring, 1991).

Guetzow, Mark A., "The Life of Henry Ossian Flipper: Triumph or Tragedy?" Texas Historian 58, no. 1 (September, 1997).

Hardaway, Roger D. Narrative Bibliography of the African-American Frontier: Blacks in the Rocky Mountain West, 1535–1912. (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1995).

Harris, Theodore D., "Henry Flipper and Pancho Villa," Password 6, no. 2 (Spring, 1961).

__________. Negro Frontiersman: The Western Memoirs of Henry O. Flipper, First Negro Graduate of West Point. (El Paso: Texas Western College Press, 1963).

Hilton, David, "Henry Ossian Flipper: America's First Black Officer," Texas Historian 50, no. 1 (September, 1989).

Katz, William Loren. Black People Who Made the Old West. (Trenton, NJ: African World Press, 1992).

__________. The Black West. (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1973).

Kinevan, Marcos E. Frontier Cavalryman: Lieutenant John Bigelow with the Buffalo Soldiers in Texas. (El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1998).

Kyvig, David E., "Policing the Panhandle: Fort Elliott, Texas, 1875–1890," Red River Valley Historical Review 1, no. 3 (Autumn, 1974).

Ledbetter, Barbara A. N. Fort Belknap Frontier Saga: Indians, Negroes, and Anglo-Americans on the Texas Frontier. (Burnet, TX: 1982).

Leckie, William H. The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Black Cavalry in the West. Rev. ed. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003).

Leiker, James N. Racial Borders: Black Soldiers along the Rio Grande. (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2002).

Logan, A., "Black Men in the Cattle Country," Westerner's Brand Book 38, no. 5 (September/October, 1981).

Lowry, Jack, "Buffalo Soldiers," Texas Highways 36, no. 2 (February, 1989).

McCarthy, Deidre, "Exploring the Contributions of the Buffalo Soldiers through New Technologies," CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship 2, no. 1 (Winter, 2005).

Matthews, James T., "Traveling over an Unknown Trail: Company H of the Tenth Cavalry at Fort Davis, 1875–1885," Journal of Big Bend Studies 12 (2000).

Nankivel, John Henry. History of the Twenty-fifth Regiment, United States Infantry, 1869–1926. (Fort Collins, CO: Old Army Press, 1972, c1927).

On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier: Bibliographies of African Americans in the U.S. Army, 1866–1917. Comp and ed. by Frank N. Schubert. (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1995).

Peoples of Color in the American West. Ed. Sucheng Chan, et al. (Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath and Co., 1994).

Plant, Trevor K., “Genealogy Notes: Researching African Americans in the U. S. Army, 1866-1890: Buffalo Soldiers and Black Infantry,” Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration 33, no. 1 (Spring, 2001).

Porter, Kenneth W. The Negro on the American Frontier. (New York: Arno Press, 1971).

______________. "Negroes and Indians on the Texas Frontier, 1834–1874," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 53, no. 2 (October, 1949).

Pospisil, JoAnn, "Black Defenders in the American West, 1865 to 1890," West Texas Historical Association Year Book 76 (2000).

Prebble, John. The Buffalo Soldiers. (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1959). [Fiction]

Ravage, John W. Black Pioneers: Images of the Black Experience on the North American Frontier. (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1997).

Richardson, Barbara J., "Black Cowboys Also Rode," Password 31, no. 1 (Spring, 1986).

Ricks, Lucille. A Buffalo Soldier's Legacy. (Arizona?: L. Ricks, 1993).

Robinson, Charles M., III. The Court-Martial of Lieutenant Henry Flipper. (El Paso: Texas Western Press, University of Texas at El Paso, 1994).

__________, "Don't Ruin a Good Story with the Facts: An Analysis of Henry Flipper's Account of His Court-Martial in Black Frontiersman," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 111, no. 1 (July, 2007).

__________, "Lieutenant Henry Flipper: Guilty," True West 41, no. 2 (February, 1994).

Ryan, Allison A., "Sabre and Sorrow," Texas Historian 37, no. 5 (May, 1976).

Sapper, Neil, "Black Culture in Urban Texas: A Lone Star Renaissance," Red River Valley Historical Review 6, no. 1 (Spring, 1981).

Schlissel, Lillian. Black Frontiers: A History of African American Heroes in the Old West. (New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 1995).

Schubert, Frank N. Black Valor: Buffalo Soldiers and the Medal of Honor, 1870–1898. (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1997).

Simmons, Thomas E. Who's Shooting Firecrackers?: The "Riot" at Fort Ringgold, Texas. (Grand Prairie, TX: T. E. Simmons, 1996).

Slavery to Integration: Black Americans in West Texas. Ed. by Bruce A. Glasrud and Paul H. Carlson. With Tai D. Kreidler. (Abilene, TX: State House/McWhiney Foundation Press, 2007).

Smith, Ralph A., "The Mamelukes of West Texas and Mexico," West Texas Historical Association Year Book 39 (October, 1963). [Runaway slave warriors]

Strong, Eric Emmerson, "The Lost Treaty of the Black Seminoles," West Texas Historical Association Year Book 75 (1999).

Stubblefield, Brenda, "We Too Rode the Dusty Cattle Trails," Texas Historian 34, no. 4 (March, 1974).

Taylor, Quintard. In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West, 1528–1990. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1998).

Voices of the Buffalo Soldier: Records, Reports, and Recollections of Military Life and Service in the West. Ed. Frank N. Schubert. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2003).

Williams, Nudie E., “Black Men Who Wore White Hats: Grant Johnson, United States Deputy Marshal,” Red River Valley Historical Review 5, no. 3 (Summer, 1980).

Whitbeck, Donald R. A Man Named Moses: The Military Life of a Heroic Buffalo Soldier. (Los Angeles: WT Records & Publishing, 2002, c1996).

Wooster, Robert. Frontier Crossroads: Fort Davis and the West. (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2006).


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