With Mexico gaining independence from Spain in 1821, control of Texas passed into new hands, but the old problems of governing Texas, dealing with the Indians, and controlling the tide of foreign settlers remained the same. Some of these settlers came as loyal subjects while others harbored more ambitious designs. All of them came seeking opportunity.
Harmony with state and federal officials was indispensable to the success of the colonies. Stephen F. Austin realized this fact and never allowed the settlers to forget the solid benefits that they received through the liberal colonization policy or their obligation to obey the laws and become loyal Mexican citizens. He anticipated and disarmed criticism of inconvenient laws and clumsy administration and then used the patience of the colonists as evidence of good faith in begging the government for concessions.
By 1832, Austin's various colonies contained eight thousand persons, and other empresarios such as Green De Witt and Martin de Leon, had brought in a great many more. The rapid growth of the colonies, in addition to persistent efforts of the United States to buy Texas, increased the anxiety of Mexican leaders. Their consequent attempts to safeguard the territory by stopping immigrationówith other irritationsócaused an insurrection, and the continued friction led to revolution and independence.