The Law of April 6, 1830, embodied the Mexican policy of stopping the further colonization of Texas by settlers from the United States. Military measures to enforce this law coupled with imprudent administration of the tariff laws produced the Anahuac disturbances. In October 1832, delegates met in a convention to articulate the needs of Texans, though the needs were never presented to the Mexican government. A follow up convention, in April 1833, went beyond needs and desires and drafted a constitution. The situation deteriorated over the next two years until war began in Gonzales on October 1, 1835. The Texas Revolution raged through the winter and into the spring of 1836, until Texas forces defeated the Mexican Army and nearly a century and a half of Hispanic rule came to an end on a battlefield at San Jacinto.
Through the ten years of independence, Texas elected five men to the presidency whose administrations dealt with national defense and frontier protection, land disposal, continuing settlement by foreigners, promoting commerce and trade, and a mounting debt. Indian depredations were a persistent problem for frontier settlements in Texas while threats and incursions from Mexico came frequently enough to incite organized response from the Texas army and navy. The specter of slavery haunted annexation discussions and generated ample opposition within the United States against Texas joining the Union. Eventually however, annexation forces prevailed, aided by the election of James K. Polk. The United States Congress approved annexation by a joint resolution in Februrary 1845. A popular vote in Texas approved the annexation in October and Polk signed the act admitting Texas as a state on December 1845.