Through the ten years of independence, Texas elected five men to the presidency whose administrations dealt with national defense and frontier protection, land disposal, continuing settlement by foreigners, promoting commerce and trade, and a mounting debt. Indian depredations were a persistent problem for frontier settlements in Texas while threats and incursions from Mexico came frequently enough to incite organized response from the Texas army and navy. The specter of slavery haunted annexation discussions and generated ample opposition within the United States against Texas joining the Union. Eventually however, annexation forces prevailed, aided by the election of James K. Polk. The United States Congress approved annexation by a joint resolution in Februrary 1845. A popular vote in Texas approved the annexation in October, and Polk signed the act admitting Texas as a state on December 1845.
Enter the Independence Exhibit —>